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Understanding the Mind-Geshe Kelsang Gyatso

Lorig - an explanation of the nature and functions of the mind
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Jon Dicks

on 18 October 2012

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Transcript of Understanding the Mind-Geshe Kelsang Gyatso

Understanding the Mind

* Geshe Kelsang Gyatso The definition of object-possessor is a functioning thing that expresses or cognizes an object Object-possessor The definition of expressive sound is an object of hearing that makes its expressed object understood Expressive sounds The definition of letter is a vocalisation that is a basis for the composition of names and phrases. Letters The definition of name is an object of hearing that principally expresses the name of any phenomenon Names The definition of phrase is an object of hearing that indicates a meaning by connecting a name with a predicate Phrases The definition of person is an I imputed in dependence upon any of the five aggregates


Person, being, self, and I are synonyms Persons A twofold division into Buddhas and non-Buddhas A twofold division into ordinary beings and Superior beings A fivefold division into Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Solitary Conquerors, Hearers, and migrating beings Buddhas Non-buddhas The definition of mind is that which is clarity and cognizes Minds A twofold division into conceptual minds and non-conceptual minds A twofold division into sense awarenesses and mental awarenesses A sevenfold division into direct perceivers, inferential cognizers, re-cognizers, correct beliefs, non-ascertaining perceivers, doubts, and wrong awarenesses The definition of conceptual mind is a thought that apprehends its object through a generic image

The definition of generic image is the appearing object of a conceptual mind Conceptual minds Ordinary beings Superior beings Buddhas Bodhisattvas Solitary Conquerors Hearers Migrating beings A twofold division into valid cognizers and non-valid cognizers A twofold division into primary minds and mental factors The definition of non-conceptual mind is a cognizer to which its object appears clearly without being mixed with a generic image Non-conceptual minds The definition of sense awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a sense power possessing form Sense awarenesses The defininition of mental awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a mental power Mental awarenesses The explanation of Understanding the Mind begins with a presentation of object possessors The definition of direct perceiver is a cognizer that apprehends its manifest object Direct perceivers The definition of inferential cognizer is a completely reliable cognizer whose object is realized in direct dependence upon a conclusive reason Inferential cognizers The definition of re-cognizer is a cognizer that realizes what has already been realized through the force of a previous valid cognizer Re-cognizers The definition of correct belief is a non-valid cognizer that realizes its conceived object Correct beliefs The definition of non-ascertaining perceiver is a cognizer to which a phenomenon that is its engaged object appears clearly without being ascertained Non-ascertaining perceivers The definition of doubt is a mental factor that wavers with respect to its object Doubts The definition of wrong awareness is a cognizer that is mistaken with respect to its engaged object Wrong views Valid cognizers The definition of a non-valid cognizer is a cognizer that is deceptive with respect to its engaged object Non-valid cognizers The definition of primary mind is a cognizer that principally apprehends the mere entity of an object Primary minds The definition of mental factor is a cognizer that principally apprehends a particular attribute of an object Mental factors There are three types of object possessor: There are three types of expressive sound: There are three main divisions of persons: There are five main divisions of mind: There are three types of conceptual mind: Conceptual minds that perceive the generic image of an object mainly through the force of listening or reading Conceptual minds that perceive the generic image of an object mainly through the force of contemplating the meaning of that object Conceptual minds that perceive the generic image of an object mainly through the force of previous imprints There is also a twofold division of conceptual mind: Correct conceptual minds Wrong conceptual minds There are two types of non-conceptual mind: The definition of sense awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a sense power possessing form Sense awarenesses Non-conceptual mental awarenesses There are three types of non-conceptual mental awareness: There is another twofold division of non-conceptual mind: Non-conceptual mental direct perceivers Yogic direct perceivers Non-conceptual mental awarenesses that are neither of these two Correct non-conceptual minds Wrong non-conceptual minds There are five types of sense awareness The definition of eye awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, an eye sense power. This definition can be applied to the other four sense awarenesses by changing the uncommon dominant condition to the ear sense power, the nose sense power, the tongue sense power, or the body sense power Eye awareness The definition of ear awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a ear sense power. Ear awareness The definition of nose awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a nose sense power. Nose awareness Tongue awareness Body awareness The definition of tongue awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a tongue sense power. The definition of body awareness is an awareness that is developed in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a body sense power. Dominant condition The definition of dominant condition is that which principally assists the development of a sense or mental awareness There are two types of dominant condition: Common dominant condition Uncommon dominant condition The definition of mental power is a mentality that principally functions to produce the uncommon aspect of a mental awareness There are two types of mental awareness Conceptual mental awarenesses Non-conceptual mental awarenesses There is also a threefold division of mental awareness: Non-virtuous mental awarenesses Virtuous mental awarenesses Neutral mental awarenesses There are three types of direct perceiver: The definition of sense direct perceiver is a direct perceiver that is generated in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a sense power possessing form Sense direct perceivers The definition of mental direct perceiver is a direct perceiver that is generated in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a mental power Mental direct perceivers The definition of yogic direct perceiver is a direct perceiver that realizes a subtle object directly, in dependence upon its uncommon dominant condition, a concentration that is a union of tranquil abiding and superior seeing Yogic direct perceivers There are five types of sense direct perceiver: Eye sense direct perceiver Ear sense direct perceiver Nose sense direct perceiver Tongue sense direct perceiver Body sense direct perceiver There is also a threefold division of sense direct perceiver: Sense direct perceivers that are valid cognizers but not re-cognizers Sense direct perceivers that are both valid cognizers and re-cognizers Sense direct perceivers that are non-ascertaining perceivers There are three types of mental direct perceiver: Mental direct perceivers induced by sense direct perceivers Mental direct perceivers induced by meditation Mental direct perceivers that are induced neither by sense direct perceivers nor by meditation There are five types of mental direct perceiver induced by sense direct perceivers: mental direct perceivers apprehending forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile objects Mental direct perceivers apprehending smells Mental direct perceivers apprehending sounds Mental direct perceivers apprehending forms Mental direct perceivers apprehending tastes Mental direct perceivers apprehending tactile objects There are two types of yogic direct perceiver: Yogic direct perceivers in the continuum of Hinayanists Yogic direct perceivers in the continuum of Mahayanists There is also a fourfold division of yogic direct perceiver: Yogic direct perceivers that are paths of seeing Yogic direct perceivers that are paths of preparation Yogic direct perceivers that are paths of meditation Yogic direct perceivers that are Paths of No More Learning There is another twofold division of yogic direct perceiver: Yogic direct perceivers that realize the ultimate nature of phenomena Yogic direct perceivers that realize the conventional nature of phenomena The definition of conclusive reason is a reason that is qualified by the three modes There are three types of inferential cognizer from the point of view of the type of reason upon which they depend: Inferential cognizers through belief Inferential cognizers through the power of fact Inferential cognizers through renown There is also a twofold division of inferential cognizer from the point of view of how they are generated: Inferential cognizers arisen from contemplation Inferential cognizers arisen from listening There are two types of re-cognizer: Non-conceptual re-cognizers Conceptual re-cognizers There are three types of non-conceptual re-cognizer: Re-cognizers that are non-conceptual mental direct perceivers Re-cognizers that are sense direct perceivers Re-cognizers that are yogic direct perceivers There are two types of conceptual re-cognizer: Conceptual re-cognizers induced by direct perceivers Conceptual re-cognizers induced by inferential cognizers There are three types of conceptual re-cognizers induced by direct perceivers: those induced by sense direct perceivers; those induced by mental direct perceivers; and those induced by yogic direct perceivers Those induced by mental direct perceivers Those induced by sense direct perceivers Those induced by yogic direct perceivers There are two types of correct belief: Correct beliefs that do not depend upon a reason Correct beliefs that depend upon a reason There are two types of non-ascertaining perceiver: Non-ascertaining sense direct perceivers Non-ascertaining mental direct perceivers There are two types of doubt: Deluded doubt Non-deluded doubt There is also a threefold division of doubt: Doubts tending away from the truth Doubts tending towards the truth Balanced doubts There is another threefold division of doubt: Non-virtuous doubts Virtuous doubts Neutral doubts There are two types of wrong awareness: Non-conceptual wrong awarenesses Conceptual wrong awarenesses There are two types of non-conceptual wrong awareness: A wrong sense awareness can be mistaken with respect to its object in any of seven different ways: being mistaken with respect to its object's shape, colour, activity, number, time, measurement, or entity Wrong sense awarenesses Wrong non-conceptual mental awarenesses Being mistaken with respect to its object's shape Being mistaken with respect to its object's colour Being mistaken with respect to its object's activity Being mistaken with respect to its object's number Being mistaken with respect to its object's time Being mistaken with respect to its object's measurement Being mistaken with respect to its object's entity There are two types of conceptual wrong awareness: Intellectually-formed wrong awarenesses Innate wrong awarenesses A deceptive quality of the object A deceptive situation A deceptive sense power A fault in the preceding awareness There are four causes of wrong sense awareness: Valid The definition of valid Teacher is a Teacher who knows fully and without error what objects are to be abandoned and what objects are to be practiced, and who, out of compassion, reveals this knowledge to others Valid Teachers There are three types of valid: The definition of valid teaching is an instruction that principally explains without error the objects to be abandoned and how to abandon them, and the object to be practised and how to practise them Valid Teachings Valid Cognizers The definition of valid cognizer is a cognizer that is non-deceptive with respect to its engaged object There are two types of valid cognizer: The definition of direct valid cognizer is a non-deceptive cognizer that apprehends its manifest object Direct valid cognizers Valid sense direct cognizers Valid mental direct cognizers Valid yogic direct cognizers The definition of inferential valid cognizer is a non-deceptive cognizer that realizes its hidden object by depending upon a conclusive reason Inferential valid cognizers Inferential valid cognizers through the power of fact Inferential valid cognizers through belief Inferential valid cognizers through renown The definition of manifest object is an object whose initial realization by a valid cognizer does not depend upon logical reasons There are three types of direct valid cognizer: The definition of hidden object is an object whose initial realization by a valid cognizer depends upon correct logical reasons There are three types of inferential valid cognizer: There are two types of non-valid cognizer: Non-conceptual non-valid cognizers Conceptual non-valid cognizers Primary mind, mentality, and consciousness are synonyms There are six types of primary mind: Eye consciousness Ear consciousness Nose consciousness Tongue consciousness Body consciousness Mental consciousness A primary mind and its mental factor possess five similarities: Basis Object Time Substance Aspect There are fifty-one mental factors, which are divided into six groups: The eleven virtuous mental factors The five object-ascertaining mental factors The five all-accompanying mental factors The definition of delusion is a mental factor that arises from inappropriate attention and that functions to make the mind unpeaceful and uncontrolled The six root delusions The twenty secondary delusions are: The twenty secondary delusions The four changeable mental factors The five all accompanying mental factors are: The definition of intention is a mental factor that functions to move its primary mind to the object Intention The definition of discrimination is a mental factor that functions to apprehend the uncommon sign of an object Discrimination The definition of feeling is a mental factor that functions to experience pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral objects Feeling The definition of contact is a mental factor that functions to perceive its object as pleasant, unpleasant or neutral Contact The definition of attention is a mental factor that functions to focus the mind on a particular attribute of an object Attention There are three types of feeling: Unpleasant feelings Pleasant feelings Neutral feelings There is also a twofold division of feeling from the point of view of their uncommon dominant condition: Bodily feelings Mental feelings There is another twofold division of feeling from the point of view of their nature: Contaminated feelings Uncontaminated feelings There are six types of discrimination: Discriminations associated with eye consciousness Discriminations associated with ear consciousness Discriminations associated with nose consciousness Discriminations associated with tongue consciousness Discriminations associated with body consciousness Discriminations associated with mental consciousness There is also a twofold division of discrimination: Mistaken discriminations Non-mistaken discriminations There is another twofold division of discrimination: Clear discriminations Unclear discriminations There are three types of intention: Virtuous intentions Non-virtuous intentions Neutral intentions Non-virtuous bodily actions Non-virtuous verbal actions Non-virtuous mental actions There is another threefold division of intention: Meritorious actions There is a threefold division of both meritorious and non-meritorious actions: those that are throwing karma; those that are completing karma; and those that are karma whose results are experienced in the same life There are three types of non-virtuous action: Non-meritorious actions Unfluctuating actions There are six types of contact: Contact associated with nose consciousness Contact associated with ear consciousness Contact associated with eye consciousness Contact associated with tongue consciousness Contact associated with body consciousness Contact associated with mental consciousness There are two types of attention: Incorrect attention Correct attention There is also another twofold division of attention: Appropriate attention Inappropriate attention The five object-ascertaining mental factors are: The definition of mindfulness is a mental factor that functions not to forget the object realized by the primary mind Mindfulness The definition of firm apprehension is a mental factor that makes its primary mind apprehend its object firmly Firm apprehension The definition of aspiration is a mental factor that focuses on a desired object and takes an interest in it Aspiration The definition of concentration is a mental factor that makes its primary mind remain on its object single-pointedly Concentration The definition of wisdom is a virtuous, intelligent mind that makes its primary mind realize its object thoroughly Wisdom There are four types of aspiration: Wishing not to be separated from an object Wishing to obtain an object Wishing to meet an object Each of these can be virtuous, non-virtuous, or neutral depending on its motivation Wishing to be released from an object There is also a twofold division of aspiration: Mistaken aspirations Non-mistaken aspirations Thee are two types of firm apprehension: Correct firm apprehensions Mistaken firm apprehensions There are two types of mindfulness: New mindfulness Old mindfulness There is another twofold division of mindfulness: Mindfulness with movements of mental sinking and mental excitement Mindfulness without movements of mental sinking and mental excitement There are nine levels of concentration from the point of view of realm: Concentration of the second form realm Concentration of the first form realm Concentration of the desire realm Concentration of the third form realm Concentration of the fourth form realm Concentration of peak of samsara Concentration of nothingness Concentration of infinite consciousness Concentration of infinite space Placing the mind Continual placement Replacement Close placement Controlling Pacifying Completely pacifying Single-pointedness Placement in equipoise There are nine levels of desire realm concentration: There are two types of concentration from the point of view of their effect: Mundane concentrations Supramundane concentrations There is another twofold division of concentration from the point of view of their object: Concentrations observing conventional objects Concentrations observing ultimate objects There are three types of wisdom: Wisdom arisen from listening Wisdom arisen from contemplation Wisdom arisen from meditation There is also a sevenfold division of wisdom: Clear wisdom Great wisdom Quick wisdom Profound wisdom The wisdom of expounding Dharma The wisdom of spiritual debate The wisdom of composing Dharma books The eleven virtuous mental factors are: Faith Sense of shame Consideration Non-attachment Non-hatred Non-ignorance Effort Mental suppleness Conscientiousness Equanimity Non-harmfulness The definition of faith is a mental factor that functions principally to eliminate non-faith The definition of sense of shame is a mental factor that functions to avoid inappropriate actions for reasons that concern oneself The definition of consideration is a mental factor that functions to avoid inappropriate actions for reasons that concern others The definition of non-attachment is a mental factor that functions as the direct opponent of attachment The definition of non-hatred is a mental factor that functions as the direct opponent of hatred The definition of non-ignorance is a mental factor that functions as the direct opponent of ignorance The definition of effort is a mental factor that makes its primary mind delight in virtue The definition of mental suppleness is a flexibility of mind induced by virtuous concentration The definition of conscientiousness is a mental factor that, in dependence upon effort, cherishes what is virtuous and guards the mind from delusion and non-virtue The definition of equanimity is a mental factor that functions to keep the primary mind free from mental sinking and mental excitement The definition of non-harmfulness is a mental factor that wishes sentient beings not to suffer There are three types of faith: Believing faith Admiring faith Wishing faith There are three types of sense of shame: Sense of shame that restrains us from inappropriate bodily actions Sense of shame that restrains us from inappropriate verbal actions Sense of shame that restrains us from inappropriate mental actions There is also a twofold division of sense of shame: Sense of shame that restrains us from inappropriate actions out of concern simply for ourself Sense of shame that restrains us from inappropriate actions out of concern simply for the specific undesirable results for ourself There are three types of consideration: Consideration that restrains us from inappropriate bodily actions Consideration that restrains us from inappropriate verbal actions There is also a twofold division of consideration: Consideration that restrains us from inappropriate actions out of concern simply for others Consideration that restrains us from inappropriate actions out of concern simply for the specific undesirable results for others Consideration that restrains us from inappropriate mental actions There are three types of non-attachment: Non-attachment to samsaric places Non-attachment to samsaric enjoyments Non-attachment to samsaric bodies There is another threefold division of non-attachment: Non-attachment to this life Non-attachment to samsara Non-attachment to solitary peace There are three types of non-hatred: Non-hatred towards those who harm us Non-hatred towards innanimate objects that cause us suffering Non-hatred towards resultant suffering There are four types of non-ignorance: Non-ignorance arisen from listening Non-ignorance arisen from contemplation Non-ignorance arisen from meditation Non-ignorance arisen from imprints There are four types of effort: Armour-like effort Effort of non-discouragement Effort of application Effort of non-satisfaction There is also a fivefold division of effort: Armour-like effort Effort of application Effort of non-discouragement Effort of non-satisfaction Effort of irreversibility There is also a threefold division of effort: Armour-like effort Effort of gathering virtuous Dharmas Effort of benefiting others There are four powers: The power of aspiration Powers The power of steadfastness The power of joy The power of rejection There are two types of mental suppleness: Subtle mental suppleness Gross mental suppleness There are two types of conscientiousness: Conscientiousness that is a virtuous root of mundane paths Conscientiousness that is a virtuous root of supramundane paths There are three types of equanimity: Equanimity that requires gross effort Equanimity that requires subtle effort Equanimity that requires no effort There are two types of non-harmfulness, or compassion: Compassion wishing sentient beings to be free from suffering Compassion wishing sentient beings to be free from the causes of suffering There is also another twofold division of compassion: Mere compassion Superior compassion The definition of virtue is a phenomenon that functions as a main cause of happiness Virtue Natural virtue Virtue by association Virtue by motivation Virtue by subsequent relation Ultimate virtue There are five types of virtue: The definition of non-virtue is a phenomenon that functions as a main cause of suffering Non-virtue Natural non-virtue Non-virtue by association Non-virtue by motivation Non-virtue by subsequent relation Ultimate non-virtue There are five types of non-virtue: Delusions Causes of delusions There are six causes of delusion: The object The seed Inappropriate attention Familiarity Distraction and being influenced by others Bad habits Delusions from the point of view of realm Delusions of the desire realm There are three types of delusion from the point of view of realm: Delusions of the form realm Delusions of the formless realm There are nine levels, from big-big to small-small, of each of the delusions of the desire realm, and each of the delusions of each level of the form and formless realms, making eighty-one levels of delusion in all Delusions from the point of view of cause Innate delusions Intellectually-formed delusions There is also a two-fold division of delusion from the point of view of their cause: Delusions from the point of view of entity Root delusions Secondary delusions There is also another two-fold division of delusion from the point of view of entity: The six root delusions are: The definition of deluded pride is a deluded mental factor that, through considering and exaggerating one's own good qualities or possessions, feels arrogant Deluded pride The definition of ignorance according to Asanga and Vasabandu is a mental factor that is confused about the nature of an object and that functions to induce wrong awareness, doubt, and other delusions Ignorance The definition of anger is a deluded mental factor that observes its contaminated object, exaggerates its bad qualities, considers it to be undesirable, and wishes to harm it Anger The definition of deluded doubt is a two-pointedness of mind that interferes with the attainment of liberation or enlightenment Deluded doubt The definition of deluded view is a view that functions to obstruct the attainment of liberation Deluded view The definition of desirous attachment is a deluded mental factor that observes its contaminated object, regards it as a cause of happiness, and wishes for it Desirous attachment Desirous attachment from the point of view of time There are three types of desirous attachment from the point of view of time: Desirous attachment to present objects Desirous attachment to past objects Desirous attachment to future objects Desirous attachment from the point of view of entity Desire realm desirous attachment From the point of view of entity, desirous attachment can be divided into three - big, middling, and small - or into eighty-one - the nine levels of desirous attachment of each of the nine realms. These are all included within three: Form realm desirous attachment Formless realm desirous attachment Desirous attachment from the point of view of its object Desirous attachment to samsaric enjoyments Desirous attachment to samsaric places Desirous attachment to samsaric bodies There is another three-fold division of desirous attachment from the point of view of its object: Anger from the point of view of entity Big-big There are nine types of anger from the point of view of entity, from big-big to small-small: Middling-big Small-big Big-middling Middliing-middling Small-middling Big-small Middling-small Small-small Anger from the point of view of how it is generated Anger towards someone or something that harmed us in the past There is another ninefold division of anger from the point of view of how it is generated: Anger towards someone or something that is harming us now Anger towards someone or something that might harm us in the future Anger towards someone or something that harmed our friends or relatives in the past Anger towards someone or something that is harming our friends or relatives now Anger towards someone or something that might harm our friends or relatives in the future Anger towards someone or something that helped our enemy in the past Anger towards someone or something that is helping our enemy now Anger towards someone or something that might help our enemy in the future There are seven types of deluded pride: Pride over superiors Pride over equals Pride in identity Pride over inferiors Pretentious pride Emulating pride Wrong pride The definition of ignorance according to Chandrakirti and Dharmakirti is a mental factor that is the opposite of the wisdom apprehending selflessness There are two types of ignorance: Ignorance of conventional truths Ignorance of ultimate truths There is another twofold division of ignorance: Ignorance of actions and their effects Ignorance of emptiness There are three types of doubt in general: Doubts tending towards the truth Doubts tending away from the truth Balanced doubts There are five types of deluded view: View of the transitory collection Extreme view Holding false views as extreme Holding wrong moral disciplines and conduct as supreme Wrong view The definition of the view of the transitory collection is a type of self-grasping of persons that grasps one's own I as being an inherently existent I There are two types of view of the transitory collection: View of the transitory collection conceiving I View of the transitory collection conceiving mine There is another twofold division of the view of the transitory collection: Innate view of the transitory collection Intellectually-formed view of the transitory collection There are twenty intellectually-formed views of the transitory collection, four in relation to each of the five aggregates The definition of extreme view is a deluded view that observes the I that is the conceived object of the view of the transitory collection and grasps it either as permanent or as completely ceasing at the time of death The definition of holding false views as extreme is a deluded view that holds a false view to be correct and superior to other views The definition of holding wrong moral disciplines and conduct as supreme is a deluded view that holds any wrong moral discipline or conduct to be correct and considers it to be superior to other forms of moral discipline or conduct The definition of wrong view is an intellectually-formed wrong awareness that denies the existence of an object that it is necessary to understand to attain liberation or enlightenment The definition of laziness is a deluded mental factor that, motivated by attachment to worldly pleasures or worldly activities, dislikes virtuous activity Laziness The definition of non-conscientiousness is a deluded mental factor that wishes to engage in non-virtuous actions without restraint Non-conscientiousness The definition of deluded forgetfulness is a deluded mental factor that makes us forget a virtuous object Deluded forgetfulness The definition of non-alertness is a deluded mental factor that, being unable to distinguish faults from non-faults, causes us to develop faults Non-alertness The definition of aggression is an increase of the root delusion anger that wishes to hurt or harm others physically or verbally Aggression The definition of resentment is a deluded mental factor that maintains the continuum of anger without forgetting it, and wishes to retaliate Resentment The definition of spite is a mental factor that, motivated by resentment or aggression, wishes to speak harshly Spite The definition of jealousy is a deluded mental factor that feels displeasure when observing others' enjoyments, good qualities, or good fortune Jealousy The definition of miserliness is a deluded mental factor that, motivated by desirous attachment, holds onto things tightly and does not want to part with them Miserliness The definition of concealment is a deluded mental factor that, motivated by attachment to wealth or reputation, wishes to conceal our faults from others Concealment The definition of pretension is a deluded mental factor that, motivated by attachment to wealth or reputation, wishes to pretend that we possess qualities that we do not possess Pretension The definition of self-satisfaction is a deluded mental factor that observes our own physical beauty, wealth, or other good qualities, and, being concerned only with these, has no interest in spiritual development Self-satisfaction The definition of shamelessness is a deluded mental factor that is the opposite of sense of shame Shamelessness The definition of inconsideration is a deluded mental factor that is the opposite of consideration Inconsideration The definition of dullness is a deluded mental factor that functions to make both the body and mind heavy and inflexible Dullness The definition of distraction is a deluded mental factor that wanders to any object of delusion Distraction The definition of mental excitement is a deluded mental factor that wanders to any object of attachment Mental excitement The definition of non-faith is a deluded mental factor that is the opposite of faith Non-faith The definition of harmfulness is a deluded mental factor that wishes other sentient beings to suffer Harmfulness The definition of denial is a deluded mental factor that does not wish to purify non-virtuous actions that we have committed or downfalls that we have incurred Denial The four changeable mental factors are: The definition of sleep is a mental factor that is developed through dullness or its imprints and that functions to gather the sense awarenesses inwards Sleep The definition of regret is a mental factor that feels remorse for actions done in the past Regret The definition of investigation is a mental factor that examines an object to gain an understanding of its gross nature Investigation The definition of analysis is a mental factor that examines an object to gain an understanding of its subtle nature Analysis Through the small virtue I have created through copying, for the purposes of study, the profound and blessed guidance of my kind spiritual guide, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, may pure Buddhadharma flourish extensively throughout the world; and thereby may all living beings become free from every kind of misery and find true and lasting happiness. http://www.tharpa.com/uk/meditation-buddhist-books/all-books/understanding-the-mind.html
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