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OTD 8102: Week 2 Introduction to PEOP Model

Class of 2018
by

Rick Davenport

on 29 May 2015

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Transcript of OTD 8102: Week 2 Introduction to PEOP Model

Here is a graphic overview of the 2005 version of the Person-Environment- Occupation-Performance (PEOP) model
Introduction to PEOP model
OTD 8102 Course: Foundations of Occupational Therapy
Summer Semester 2015
Week 2

How many classes in the OTD curriculum should you reflect on the PEOP model?
You are Here
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
PEOP
All of them
Baum and Christiansen (2005) point out that:
"occupational therapy almost never does things to people; it more frequently does things with people" (p. 245).
Rimmer, C. (2012) Louisa helps cook the Okonomiyaki [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrstopher/4717827586/in/photostream/
Jacinto, R. (2012) Bored [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/37degrees/3481718721/
Always remember - Theory is part of your Professional Paradigm which you will carry with you as you engage clients in valued occupations. You will carry the PEOP model with you as you walk in each client's room.
"However [occupational therapy] intervention strategies may or may not involve an individual's
direct engagement in occupation
, nor do they necessarily involve a
physiological change
, ...client's active involvement may consist of working with the therapist to identify goals and strategies that will remove barriers and enable participation in tasks and roles that have meaning to the person (Baum & Christiansen, 2005, p.244).
Schmidt, G. (2012) Our burglar alarm [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/shortfatkid/2188026852/
Schmidt, G. (2012) Our burglar alarm [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/shortfatkid/2188026852/
"Sometimes, effective therapy requires the client's active physical involvement, but it
always requires
the client's interest, attention, and cooperation" (Baum and Christriansen, 2005, p.245).
What is the definition of engagement?
Requires a Top-Down Approach
Jacinto, R. (2012) Bored [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/37degrees/3481718721/
Baum and Christiansen (2005), "The practitioner must determine with the client what he or she perceives to be the important occupational performance issues that are limiting participation and causing difficulty in carrying out tasks and roles within the daily round of occupations" (p.245).
Conan. (2012) Handicap accessible [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/conanil/4053930876/
Belief of the PEOP Model
Human Agency and....
... sense of fulfillment
'Human Agency'
Client Centered Model
"Models that focus on the individual's needs and goals rather than their impairment are called client-centered models (Law, Baptiste, & Mills, 1995 in B&C 2005). The PEOP model is a client-centered model. It focuses on the individual and that person's daily occupations that are limited as the result of a health condition, a disability, a poorly designed environment, or problems experienced due to a societal consequence." (B&C 2005)
According to Baum and Christiansen (2005) "In the PEOP model, occupational therapy intervention is viewed as a process of using a broad range of purposeful client-centered strategies that engage the individual or the group to develop or use resources that enable successful performance of the necessary and meaningful occupations" (p. 244).
Can we do therapy without having the client 1) directly engage in an occupation, 2) have a physiologic change, or both 1) and 2)?
Please watch your step!!!
(very considerate of them to place the handicap signage)
Handicapped Pets (2012) Dog wheelchair - Boxer can walk and play again! [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/handicappedpets/4581403660/
The End
According to Baum and Christiansen (2005) the PEOP model:
"began its development in 1985 and was first published in 1991" (p. 244).
defined as a "client-centered model organized to improve the everyday performance of necessary and valued
occupations
of individuals, organizations, and populations and their meaningful
participation
in the world around them. The model describes an interaction of

person factors

and
environmental factors

that either
support
,
enable
, or
restrict
the
performance
of the
activities, tasks
, and
roles of the
individual, organization, or community" (p.244).
PERSON + ENVIRONMENT + OCCUPATION + PERFORMANCE = OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PARTICIPATION
Personal factors
(Intrinsic factors -reside within the person) (capacity)(underlying general abilities and skills)
Environment factors
(Extrinsic factors)(places in which occupations are undertaken)
Performance
(the performance of activities, tasks, and roles of the individual, organization or community).
Occupation
(consisting of valued roles, tasks, and activities)(chosen activity) (what clients want or need to do in their daily lives)
psychological/emotional
cognition
neurobehavioral
physiological factors
spirituality
social support
societal policies
attitudes
natural environments
built environments
cultural norms
values
either:
support
enable
restrict/barriers
the Performance of:
either:
support
enable
restrict/barriers
the Performance of:
Baum & Christiansen (2005)(p.244- 246)
The act of doing the occupation (performance).
Performance can come from either capacity intrinsic to the individual or by support provided by the environment or a combination of both.
Doing (performance) itself is not enough. Why it is done, for whom it is done, what pleasures are derived from the act?
EJP Photo. (2012) Bit off more than he can chew. [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/ejpphoto/6976410439/
Aiesecgermany. (2012) NaLDS_052. [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/aiesecgermany/6104405580/
Social science term: 'Human Agency'
By completing daily successes they feel good about themselves and this motivates them to face new challenges with greater confidence. And through their daily occupations people develop a
self-identity
and derive a
sense of fulfillment
Occupational Performance
Baum & Christiansen (2005) (p.246)
Occupational Performance reflects the act of doing.
Occupational Performance serves as the central construct of participation and requires the linking of occupation and performance.
When occupation and performance are joined in the term 'occupational performance' it describes the actions that are meaningful to the individual as he or she cares for himself, cares for others, works, plays, and participates fully in home and community life.
Please be sure to review the descriptions of Personal Factors and examples of each.
Please be sure to review the descriptions of External Factors and examples of each.

Environment factors
(Extrinsic factors)(places in which occupations are undertaken)
social support
societal policies
attitudes
natural environments
built environments
cultural norms
values
Personal factors (Intrinsic factors -reside within the person)(capacity)(underlying general abilities and skills)
psychological/emotional
cognition
neurobehavioral
physiological factors
spirituality
Please know PEOP terminology well enough to complete matching questions. An example of this is located in C&B pp. 374-375 reads:
"Before we start planning treatment for someone else, let's think about occupational performance from your perspective. Imagine that you were riding your bike in the park (
an occupation
). You came up over a hill going at a pretty fast clip, and someone had left a tricycle in the path (
natural/built environment
). You fall off your bike, and the next thing you know you are in the hospital in a great deal of pain (
person, psychological
, physiological). You learn that you have broken your shoulder and pelvis (
physiological
) and have a mild head injury (
neurobehavioral and cognitive
). etc.
Roles
Occupations
Tasks
Actions
Abilities
Occupational therapy's traditions and body of knowledge are well suited to identify intervention strategies that contribute to the
occupational competence
(self reliant, ability to participate, etc.) of a person.
Limiting Performance?
Collect Assessment Info on:
Identify environmental factors:
The act of doing occupation
is threatened or impaired


Doing itself is not enough - rather it is done by the individual to express his or her uniqueness... it has purpose to the individual.
.
..naturally motivated to explore their world and demonstrate mastery within it.
Capacity intrinsic to the individual
Support provided by the environment
(Sensory, motor systems)
(Physiologic health and fitness)
(personality traits, motivational influences, internal processes)
Does OT intervention only involve environmental interventions?
Disabling conditions develop, progress and reverse and how biological, behavioral and environmental factors can affect these transitions...
(terrain, hrs. of sunlight, climate, & air quality)
(values, beliefs, customs, & behaviors)
Please review the basic beliefs of the PEOP model in Baum and Christiansen. p. 245
Sense of Fulfillment
Occupations
Tasks
Actions
Roles
Diagram adapted from Baum & Christiansen (2005) table 11-1 (pp. 252-254) titled 'A hierarchy of occupation-related behaviors and supportive abilities'.
Roles: Positions in society having expected responsibilities and privileges.
Roles typically involve the performance of many occupations
Recognizable positions in society
each having a defined status and specific expectations for behavior (e.g. grandmother)
Roles can be occupational, familial, or sexual
The term 'role model' confers a standart of behavior for any position that others are expected to emulate.
Roles are important for occupational therapists to understand b/c they outline the nature of occupations at various points in time...it can be asserted that occupational performance deficits have meaning principally in the context of an individual's role responsibilities.


*What is the definition socialization?
*What is 'occupational performance dysfunction'?
Role examples:
parent
homemaker
grandmother (possible occupations include: bake cookies, care for grandchildren, tell stories, give advice
therapist
mother
wife
Occupations: Goal-directed pursuits that typically extend over time, have meaning to the performer, and involve multiple tasks.
Occupations are segments of goal-directed behavior that are recognizable by others and typically include a number of related tasks performed over time.
Occupation examples:
shopping
dressing
grooming
housekeeping
report writing
keeping accounts, horseback riding
tennis
Tasks: Combination of actions sharing a common purpose recognized by the person performing the task.
Task examples:
making a grocery list
managing a grocery sack

*"When does a task performance become engagement in occupation?"
Action examples:
lifting
walking
grimacing the face
directing another to lift
Abilities
Abilities: General traits or individual characteristics that support occupational performance
Actions: Observable behaviors that are recognizable.
Actions are supported by abilities or general traits that are a product of genetic makeup and learning (Fleishman, 1975, Peterson et al., 1997 in C&B 2005)
When actions are part of specific goal-oriented activities like lifting a basket, walking across a room to close a door, or folding a towel, they become tasks.
Ability examples:
attention
motor control
language
Might be good to know this terminology :)
Nice way in future to explain what occupational therapy is.
Great way to see the big picture
Disruption in the roles of daily living
Please do not divide up the body or divide up activities when describing OT. Use the PEOP to help define OT.
Here is a graphic overview of the 2014 version of the Person-Environment- Occupation-Performance (PEOP) model
In fact the PEOP model was chosen to provide a unifying concept for your overall OTD curriculum. You should strive to see PEOP Model in all courses.
Note: you will be responsible for both versions of the PEOP Model (e.g. 2005 & 2014 versions). Note: this Prezi is based on the earlier 2005
Full transcript