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The Five Pillars of Reading

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by

Jordan Gibbs

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of The Five Pillars of Reading

The Five Pillars of Reading
Phonics
Fluency
Fluency is defined as the ability to recognize words rapidly and accurately but also to read text the way it is spoken.
Comprehension
The overall goal of using the five pillars of reading is to have students gain comprehension or understanding of the text.

Examples:
Example
This video shows a teacher using a fun comprehension strategy to teach children to make predictions and think about the text.
Examples
Different children show various reading fluency levels by reading with expression, following grammar cues, and reading words quickly and accurately.
Identifying and Improving Weaknesses
Students that are able to speak the English language, but are unable to recognize, identify, and manipulate individual sounds may not have phonemic awareness and will need extra help to improve their weaknesses.
Example
The National Reading Panel Report compiled decades of research to conclude that effective reading instruction is broken into five different components, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. These five different components build upon each other like building blocks so that students learn to read and gain meaning from text.
Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are broken into different sound segments and can be blended together to pronounce the word.
Phonics is the set of rules that specifies the relationship between words and their sounds. Phonics help students learn how to decode unfamiliar words.
Examples
Teachers can build phonemic awareness by teaching students to break down words by their different sounds and recognize patterns that appear in words.

Weaknesses
Student cannot or has trouble forming and recognizing rhyming words
Student can not identify beginning and ending sounds
Student has trouble with phoneme segmentation

Recommendations
Read to students throughout the day and engage students in discussion and explanations to enhance oral language development.
Pronounce words clearly while reading aloud.
Clap syllables out while pronouncing words in exaggerated way.
Use alliterative literature to help students recognize beginning sounds.
Provide activities for students to manipulate and identify phonemes.
Identifying and Improving Weaknesses
The student is unable to recognize or point to letters of the alphabet. Student is unable to match lower case letters to uppercase letters.
Weaknesses

Student cannot form rhyming words.
Student does not recognize rhyming words.
Student cannot match lowercase letters to uppercase letters.
Recommendations
Use a wide variety of alphabet books to help students recognize the letters and learn the sequence of the alphabet.
Present a letter and discuss its characteristic shape.
Teach students the alphabet song and point to the letter as the class sings along.
Create a collection of nonbook materials to encourage students to explore the alphabet, including magnetic letters, letter stamps, flashcards, and dry erase boards.
Identifying and Improving Weaknesses
During oral reading the students has slow and disjointed reading with inappropriate pauses, missing and incorrect wrods, and other oral reading errors.
Weaknesses
Students show little expression when reading.
Students omit or add words while reading.
Student does not use correct phrasing while reading.
Recommendations
The neurological-impress method
Dyad Reading
Group assisted Reading
Echo Reading or Imitative Reading
Paired Repeated Reading
Precision Reading
Reader's Theater

Identifying and Improving Weaknesses
The student does not understand the meaning of words commonly understood by students of her age level.
Weaknesses
Students often perform poorly on vocabulary tests.
Students with limited speaking vocabulary often have inadequate reading vocabulary that will reduce their comprehension of the text.
Recommendations
Have students preview the lesson and identify the words that they do not know the meaning of. Use this as a guide
Encourage students to use vocabulary flash cards.
Discuss new words when they come up in lessons.
Teach students how to use a dictionary.
Teach students to use affixes as clues.
Identifying and Improving Weaknesses
The student cannot answer questions about subject matter they have read or cannot tell what was reread.
Weaknesses
Student cannot answer questions from text.
Student does not recognize familiar words.
Student does not have fluency while reading.

Recommendations
K-W-L Charts
Ask students to pretend they are the teacher as they read. Have them attempt to think of as many questions as they can about each paragraph.
Have students read a paragraph and explain summarize the paragraph to another student.
This video gives an example of a neat way to help students learn their phonic sounds by using a stuffed animal or puppet.
This is an example of a poster teaching color vocabulary to kindergarten students. Often in kindergarten classrooms, each child is assigned to a color group to complete activities. It is important for these students to be able to recognize the word associated with the color.
Examples
Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the words that we need know to be able to communicate with others. There are four types of vocabulary, listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Detailed Analysis
Phonemic Awareness

Unit of sounds that make up spoken words. There are 40 different phonemes that make up the english language. The are represented by 1 or more of the 26 letters of the alphabet.
Remediation
Recognizing the Number of Sounds-
A great and fun way for students to practice recognizing the number of syllables in words is to clap, tap, snap, and count out the different sounds.
Teachers can do this with all students on the rug or with individual students. The teacher says a word aloud to student. Then together they can clap, tap, snap, and count the syllables. Teachers can use random, rhyming, and student names to expose students to a variety of words.
Phonemes
Teaching Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is usually taught before formal reading instruction.
Most strategies are designed for the early primary grades.
Clapping and tapping are one of these easiest ways for students to recognize that words are broken into different sounds.
Flashcards: Adult shows a flashcard with picture. Student must identify the picture and clap out the different sounds. Ex: /D/o/g/, /M/a/t/
Remediation
Students benefit from using manipulatives while learning phonemics. Teachers can have students create words cimo spelling application. Students can use their phoneme knowledge to make different rhyming words and begin to recognize word patterns. This can be done with cards, technology, or magnetic alphabet letters.
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