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Cons of FGM
Transcript of Cons of FGM
4 types of FGM
Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types.
Other (harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area)
Disclaimer: Some of the next slides are graphic!
What is FGM?
-FGM stands for Female Genital Mutilation (has been changed to Female Genital Modification to be more politically neutral)
- It is also known as Female Circumcision
-Definition: Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
-Taboo? FGM is not usually practiced in the Westernized parts of the world, but it is an important issue to address in terms of ethics and women's rights and health. It is internationally known as a violation of women's human rights.
Who and Where?
Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women. In Africa, more than three million girls have been estimated to be at risk for FGM annually.
More than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and Middle East where FGM is concentrated.
8000 girls are at risk of FGM, each day.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, and among migrants from these areas.
Reasons given for FGM
The primary reasons given for performing this ritual surgery are that it:
1. Meets a religious requirement
2. preserves group identity
3. Helps to maintain cleanliness and health
4. preserves virginity, family honor and prevents immorality
5. furthers marriage goals including greater sexual pleasure for men
Rebuttal: Religious Requirement?
Main reason given for performing female circumcision is that it is regarded as a religious requirement
Most people that practice FGM are Muslim, but it is not a practice required by the Koran.
There is nothing in the Koran that explicitly gives adequate reason for requiring females to get circumsized.
FGM is not even practiced in the spiritual center of Islam: Saudi Arabia
Rebuttal: Preserves Group Identity?
Practitioners of FGM argue that prohibiting FGM will destroy the tribal symbol of coming of age. FGM is of social and economic importance to older women who are oaid for performing the rituals.
However, these practitioners are unaware that FGM is a leading cause of sickness and/or death.
Is it not the time and age to prioritize well being over a sense of "group?" Does one need to have one's genitals cut out to be a part of a family?
Rebuttal: Health Purposes?
Rebuttal: Marriage and Honor
The Future Generations at Risk
Considering Ethical Relativism
- Generally performed in unsanitary conditions, w/o anesthetics. The woman's legs are bound together
-sharp stones, razor blades, glass shards, hot stones, scalpels
-generally performed by traditional circumcisors, who often play central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths
FGM has no known health benefits - in fact it has consequences:
*Bleeding or Hemorrhage (the cutting of certain blood vessels)
*Infection (the use of unsanitary tools)
*Extremely painful menstruation (build up of urine and blood in the uterus)
*Difficulty in childbirth
*Psychological Consequences such as depression, hallucinations, and traumatization.
*FGM affects a woman’s sexual sensitivity, which can also affect their marital relationships and child birth.
*Loss of orgasm if done in an early age
- In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition, necessary for proper maturation of a girl
FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are “clean” and "beautiful" after removal of body parts that are considered "male" or "unclean"
Female circumcision does not result in any more sexual pleasure for the male
Young children who has a family member in their ancestry who has been exposed to FGM.
Children who are imminently taken back to their family’s country of origin.
Any children who has an older female relative coming to “visit” who may perform FGM on the child.
Children who spend a long time in the restrooms, being excused from physical exercise such as swimming or running.
How can we stop FGM?
-Start a campaign/petition to stop FGM in our community
-spread awareness of cons of FGM
Lynn, Nina, Chris, Annas
Book: “Egypt” by Mona L. Russell Ph.D. (2014)
Book: “Clashing views in human sexuality” by Ryan W. Mckee, William J