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Critically anaylse the social and political context leading

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Olivia Jasmin

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Critically anaylse the social and political context leading

Critically analyse the social and political context leading up to 1982 Criminal Justice Act, paying attention to its key features relating to the regulation of young people and inherent tensions within youth justice during this time...
Social impacts leading to the 1982 CJA
Political impacts leading to the 1982 CJA
1982 Criminal Justice Act
1982 Criminal Justice Act
Conclusions
By Olivia Storey, Chelsea Brown, Sabrina Bradley & Nicola Makepeace.
Thank you for listening

-Changes that impacted socially
-Changes that impacted policitically
Sentencing under 21s
Social Enquiry Reports
Orders
Regulating Young People
Crime Prevention: 1980s-90s
History of Youth Regulations
Theories
Agnew, R (2006). Pressured into crime: an overview of general strain theory. London: Roxbury Publications. 09-200.
Carrabine, E. (2009). Youth Justice in the United Kingdom . Criminology: A Sociological Introduction . 2 (3), 12-24.
Cavadino, M and Digan, J. (2009). Comparative Youth Justice. In: Newburn, T Key Readings in Criminology. Devon: Willian Publishing. 698-707.
Clancey. G. (1998). Crime Prevention . Crime Prevention - Social . 9 (3), 201
Criminal Justice . (2013). Juvenile Justice History . Available: http://www.cjcj.org/Education1/Juvenile-Justice-History.html. Last accessed 16/10/2013.
Estrada, F. (2001). Trends, Media Attention and Societal Response. Juvenile Violence as a Social Problem. 41 (2), 635-655
France, A. (2012) A Political Ecology Of Youth And Crime : Macmillian
France, A (2007). Understanding Youth in Late Modernity. Berkshire: Open University Press. 1.
Gelsthrope. L and Sharpe. G. (2004). Youth Crime and Justice: Critical Issues. Gender, Youth Crime and Justice . 4 (1), 50
Goldson, B. (2006) ‘Penal Custody: Intolerance, Irrationality and Indifference’, in B. Goldson and J. Muncie (eds) Youth Crime and Justice. London: Sage.
Krinsky, C. (unknown). Introduction: The Moral Panic Concept. Available: http://www.ashgate.com/pdf/SamplePages/Ashgate-Research-Companion-to-Moral-Panics-Cont.pdf Last accessed 01/11/2013
Lea, J. (2007). Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Available: http://www.bunker8.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/cjs/269010.htm. Last accessed 16/10/2013
Marsh, I and Melville, G. (2011). Internet Journal of Criminology. Moral Panics and the British Media - A Look at Some Contemporary 'Folk Devils'. 1 (1), 1-21.
National Museum Liverpool . (2011). Toxteth 1981. Available: http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/exhibitions/toxteth1981/ . Last accessed 06/11/2013
Nellis, M. (2004). The Tracking Controversy. The Roots of Mentoring and Electronic Monitoring. 1 (4), 77.
Pearson, G. (2006). The Generation Game. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2006/nov/08/youthjustice.comment. Last accessed 3/11/2013
Pitts, J. (2008). Young people: 21 years of policy. Available: http://www.actionforchildren.org.uk/media/63670/young_people.pdf. Last accessed 5th Nov 2013
Pitts, J. (2001) The New Politics Of Youth Crime, Discipline or Solidarity. :Russell House Publishing
Rosenbaum, D. P., Lurigio, A.J. and Davis, R. C. (1998) The Prevention of Crime: Social and Situational Strategies, West/Wadsworth, Belmont, page 201).
Scotland Gov. (2010). CRIMINAL JUSTICE SOCIAL WORK REPORTS and COURT- BASED SERVICES. Available: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/925/0110144.pdf. Last accessed 06/11/13.
Smith,D (2012) A New Response To Youth Crime. : Routledge
The National Archive . (2013). 1982 Criminal Justice Act. Available: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ . Last accessed 16/10/2013.
Tropes . (2007). 'Sus Law'. Available: http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/SusLaw. Last accessed 06/11/13.
White, R and Cunneen, C. (unknown). Social Class, Youth Crime and Justice. Available: http://www.uk.sagepub.com/stout/02-Muncie-YCJ-Ch%2002.pdf. Last accessed 31/10/2013
World Youth (2003). Juvenile Delinquency . London : Youth Report. 7.
References:
Age of Criminal Responsibility
1982 Criminal Justice Act
1982 Criminal Justice Act
Seen as a threat to social stability

Negative media attention






Government progressive policies
Physical Preventions

Social Preventions

Labeling Theory

Moral Panics

Relative Deprivation

The Typology of Youth Justice
Welfare Model

Justice Model

Minimum Intervention Model

Restorative Justice Model

Neo-Correctional Model
Crime Control
Law and Order (Gelsthorpe & Morris ...)

Policing rising crime
Factory Act 1819 & 1833


No separate provisions for youth offenders
1838 Juvienille Penal Institution

1854 Youthful Offenders Act

1908 Children Act

1948 Children's Act

1960 Ingleby Committee

1963 Children & Young Person Act
Crackdown on Youth Crime
1979:

Conservative Government Elected
The Brixton Riots 1981
Social Impact

Public Opinion

Political Impact

1983: 'Intermediate Treatment Initiative'
Young offenders entering criminal justice institutions at a record low despite a rise in criminal levels

Liverpool & Brixton riots escalated from tensions between police and youths

More Crime prevention strategies are needed

Women are over looked within criminal justice

No single model for youth justice

Many reasons for youth committing crimes

Problems will always be present no matter what policies government introduce

Contradictions over young offenders still continue
Community Punishments


Maximum of 4
months
imprisonment
Detention Centre Order

Youth Custody Order
Outlines:

Characteristics of the individual

Physical & Mental Condition
Cautioning rather than incarceration
The Liverpool Riots 1981 & 1985
Reports
1981 Scarman Report

1999 Macpherson Report
Women overlooked within Criminal Justice
Adjournment of cases
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