Scale Can Mislead Format Can Mislead Representing Data Showing Data with Graphs When given data how can we find out which type of graph would show the data best? It is important now that we know the ways data is represented to look at how it is Misrepresented.

***Misrepresented does not mean that the data is wrong.

It just means that it is shown in ways that can mislead our understandings and conclusions from the Graphs.

Kind of like tricking the reader.*** 3 Things to Keep in Mind Type of Graph: Best Choice

Format of the Graph: Design for accuracy

Use of Graph: Information or Argument? Let's Practice Making the Best Choice All of the Graphs have positive and negative

aspects.

There IS more than one way to Graph data.

It is important to interpret data and show it

in the most accurate way.

Practice choosing the BEST type of Graph

AND explain why it is you made that choice.

Use the Practice sheets in your booklet. Bar Graph Pros:

The heights of Bars easy to see and compare.

Scale is given, making is easy to calculate total data collected.

It's easy to draw.

Cons:

The Bars don't always line up on the Grid line, so you might have to estimate.

Does not give percentages. Double Bar Graph Pros:

Shows 2 sets of data.

The heights of Bars show and compare data directly.

It's easy to draw and read.

Cons:

The same as for the Bar Graph. Brainstorming BEST Choice Misrepresenting Data Keys

to

reading Graphs What types of Graphs do you

remember using or seeing to

represent data? Time to Practice Reading Graphs See Ms. Land for practice sheets. Bar Graph Double Bar Graph Circle Graph Pictograph Line Graph Double Line Graph Remember Data (a.k.a. Information Collected)

is shown using different types of Graphs (Visuals). Bar Graphs: Use the height of the bars to compare data in different categories.

Eg. 5 People's favourite movie types was Action

V.S.

1 Person's favourite movie type was Drama. Double Bar Graph: Shows 2 distinct sets of data on the same Graph. This makes it easy to directly compare sets of data by the height of the bars.

Eg. 8 5th Graders chose Apples

V.S.

5 6th Graders chose Grapes Circle Graph: Lets us compare the parts (data categories) of a whole (total data collected). This is best for representing percentages (%).

Eg. 42% of The Average Teenager's Day is spent Sleeping

V.S.

33% of the Average Teenager's Day is spent at School. Pictograph: Uses symbols (pictures) to represent data that is easy to count. A Pictograph uses a Key to show the Value of the symbol.

Eg. The Key tells us one Apple symbol represents 10 Apples.

January used 10 apples

V.S.

March used 25 apples (Half a symbol represents 5 Apples) Line Graph: Shows data that changes over time. Line Segments join data points together.

Eg. Frank scored 80% on Test 2

V.S.

Frank scored 100% on Test 3 Double Line Graph: Is like a Line Graph, but lets us compare the changes of 2 sets of data over time.

Eg. Tom spent $20 in March while John spent $18

V.S.

Tom spent $25 in April while John spent $14 Other Important Terms: Discrete Data: Means data that can be counted.

Eg. # of students in class....You cannot have half a student! Trend: Can be an estimation or

line that shows the general

direction or path of

data points.

Eg. "The data in a

Line Graph appears to

have an increasing Trend."

(White board Eg. Trend Line) Lets take a closer look at:

~Identifying types of Graphs Instructions:

In table groups-Sort the Graphs provided by their type.

Raise your hand when you are done.

See Ms. Land for Practice Sheet. Bar Graphs Line Graphs Double Line Graphs Circle Graphs Pictographs Double Bar Graphs Best for:

Comparing data across categories.

Showing data in a specific way.

Easily seeing Trends. Best for:

Comparing 2 sets of data across categories right away.

Being like Bar Graphs. The Bars and colour coding makes it easy to read and draw. Best for:

Being a great visual (size) comparison to see the parts of a whole.

Data that is collected and changed from numbers or fractions to percentages.

Data that is easily counted. Best for:

Expressing the data topic through symbols.

Comparing data in smaller easy to count numbers. Best for:

Showing change in data over time. Best for:

Comparing 2 sets of data and their changes over time. Pros & Cons Circle Graph Double Line Graph Line Graph Pictograph Pros:

It shows all the parts of a whole data collection.

It is shown as a percentage (fraction converted to percent).

The size of each piece can easily be compared.

Cons:

It does not show the total data amount.

It is really difficult to draw by hand!

(We will see soon!) Pros:

The length of rows lets you compare data right away.

The symbols or images are appealing.

The Key can be used to calculate data.

Cons:

High numbers are hard to show, you would need to use lots of symbols.

The size of the symbols can misrepresent the data (making you think the symbol is worth more).

Does not show percentages. Pros:

The data provided is specific and measured.

We can identify data Trends over time (We will look at this soon).

The Line Segment (connects the data points) can be used to estimate values between points.

Cons:

The Scale of the Graph can make it hard to read (Points unclear or data changes misrepresented). Pros:

Shows 2 sets of data that is specific and measured.

Otherwise Pros are similar to the Line Graph.

Cons:

Like the Line Graph the Scale of the Graph can make it hard to read. Scale: Is the fixed

range of number

values on the graph.

The highest number on

the graph should be greater

then the data. It also can

mean the proportion of two

numbers (1:10). As we go: Read along in your notes and highlight what you think is the most important Pro AND Con for each type of Graph. Complete the

Practice sheets. We are going to be comparing the good and bad of different graph types.

Make sure you explain your opinions and choice. X Axis Y

A

x

i

s Title / Topic Scale-> <-Line Segment <-Data Point <-Category (Tests) <-Key Title / Topic <-Symbol The "Break" -> Used to

distort

the Scale. Here the Break represents 50 in the

space of ten.

If the Break was not used the graph

would be much larger. Instead it would look something like..... this.

This can impact how we read data. Label the Key Points in your notes. <-Data C

a

t

e

g

o

r

y Label the X and Y axis. <-Trend The Trend Line shows the average

progress of the data.

It is useful to estimate future data

and show the Trend of the data visibly

through the ups and downs of Line

Segments. Misrepresenting Data Means we can show Data

in different ways. Brainstorm in your table group

who would want to make data seem better or worse? Could you

be Mislead

by a Graph? Misleading leads to false conclusions This can be done through:

The Format of the Graph

Visuals (Sizes or Breaks)

Graph Type At first glance:

Breaks in the Graph can make data

appear smaller. //

(Where there is a jump in the scale)

Image, Width of Bars and size of

pictures can make data appear larger. Which would you say is greatest? At first glance:

Missing Measurements:

Unlabeled graphs can

make data categories

easy to confuse. Starting Point: Where Graphs start on

the Y Axis can change how the data

looks on the Graph. Which would you say changed more? Being A Good Critic Let's Look at Some Misleading Representations of Data

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