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History

1920s/ 1930s
by

Misha

on 6 April 2015

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Transcript of History

@IndoJacco Help me! Misha Ali Partner in architectural firm Year 1 Help me! 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 0 3 P O L I T C S I Call the Archivist H O R Y T Political Parties
and leaders Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)
Leader: J.S. Woodsworth

Social Credit
Leader: William Alberhart Union Nationale
Leader: Maurice Duplessis Liberals
Leader: Mackenzie King

Conservative Party
Leader: R.B. Bennett

Progressive party
Leader:Thomas A. Crerar Politics: Politics
• 1919 Wilfred Laurier died Liberal Party needed new leader

• party had divided over conscription during war
wanted leader who would unite party.

• William Lyon Mackenzie King elected new leader
Always looked for compromise to satisfy majority Liberals



• Robert Borden resigns from Conservative Party 1920

• Arthur Meighen becomes new party leader and Prime Minister of Canada

• Meighen was: brilliant speaker, strong opinions, not willing to compromise.
Supported conscription, worked to crush Winnipeg General Strike, in favour of high tarrifs (prairie farmers opposed). Conservatives


• New party formed by Farmers on the Prairies and in Ontario

• needed to form party to obtain laws and policies

• Wanted:
lower tariffs or free trade to reduce the prices of manufactured goods made in Central Canada

• Platform calling for lower tariffs called : New National Policy

• Thomas A. Crerar from Manitoba- becomes leader Progressive Party Two years later the Liberals won a bare majority in the federal election

King became prime minister

Set out to regain the confidence of the farmers in Ontario and western Canada

King kept support of Progressives by lowering tariffs ELECTIONS OF 1921 Liberals(King) 116
Progressives(Crerar) 64
Conservatives(Meighen) 50
Independent 3
Labour 2 Response to the Depression Beliefs:

The Hands Off Approach
Depression was temporary/part of business cycle Results:
People not making money, unable to pay taxes
King’s Liberals lost election to Bennett in 1930 Solution to Depression:

Increase Taxes
Cut government spending
He rejected giving people money for relief
Relief was emergency financial assistance given to some of the unemployed
said each province had to provide for itself What did Bennett do? Increased tariffs on products made outside the British Empire

Tried to increase trade with other countries in the British Empire Passed the Unemployment Relief Act

He believed unemployment was a municipal and provincial problem not a federal one

“one of the greatest assets a man can have on entering life’s struggle is poverty.” THEN... 1930 - The Tariff Approach By 1935 Canadians still felt Bennett’s government for doing very little to help

Just before the 1935 federal election, Bennett announced new radical reforms (major changes).

Create unemployment, minimum wages, control prices so business could make fair profits…
People called these reforms Bennett’s New Deal

Citizens thought Bennett spoke up too late and did not believe his promises. 1935 Federal Election New Political Parties Social Credit Where: the province of Alberta

Leaders: William “Bible Bill” Alberhart

Problems:
People did not have enough money to spend on the goods being produced

Solution:
Citizens would be given a “social credit” or cash payment ($25/month)
People would take the $25 and spend it on goods
Business would then increase production
The credits were called “funny money” Union Nationale Who: French Canadians

Where: the province of Quebec

Leader: Maurice Duplessis

Problems:
English speaking Canadians in Quebec were the cause of economic and social problems – taking over jobs and their French culture

Solutions:
Create a more powerful province to follow own policies
Run Quebec businesses with French citizens
Improve working conditions and build affordable housing Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Co-operative: Farmers belief in joint action

Commonwealth: hope for social order and equal wealth

Federation: party was made up of various economic and social groups

Who: Farmers, university teachers, labour groups, some government members

Wanted: More government control of production and economy. Didn’t like private ownership.

Example: Government should be in charge of health, hydro, electricity, etc. Leader: J.S. Woodsworth Solution:
Clearing out slums and extending electricity in rural areas
This would provide jobs and benefit economy
Provide cheap water, hydro, transportation, banking
Protect workers minimum wage, max hrs per week, unemployment

Eventually the federal government adopted some CCF policies
Example: welfare insurance, family allowance, unemployment insurance and compensation for injured workers

Today this party is called the New Democratic Party (NDP). W O E N M & Women New opportunities for women New opportunities for Women flapper Clothing

Education
Sports
Freedom
Jobs 1. In 1920s skirts barely covered the knees, bobs, and shingled haircuts replaced long hair and hair pins.
2. Short, loose dresses emphasized the legs and arms rather than the hips and breasts.
3. The boyish look was quite popular from 1925-1929.

Straight, curveless dresses were worn with bust flattening brassieres.

The waist completely disappeared, and belts were worn around the hips.

Coco Chanel who was the first to adopt the boyish look in 1920s. Clothing 4. Platinum was the most wanted kind of jewelry at the time.

5. Purses and handbags were considered to be the “eye candy” of the outfit.

6. Clara Bow and Louise Brooks were one of the first fashion icons to promote the look. CONT. Flappers
1. The flappers where the name given to women who did not follow the normal dress code.

2. They smoke, drank, voted and danced.

3. These women went against the norm Looked down upon by society.

4. Cut their hair, wore makeup and were adventurous.
1. Women didn't have the opportunity to get an education before 1920s, only few of them, therefore they couldn't get a job.

2. Most of female high school students seldom expected to go to college

3. If they did, they usually attended a private college or Woman’s College

4. Most of the Woman’s College students became teachers or nurses, as these were considered suitable professions for women.

5. In universities, women comprised only 10% of undergraduate enrolment in 1925.

6. There were no men in women’s College. Education: Women and girls had limited opportunities for sports in the 1920s.

-Women had to fight for the right to compete.

-All of this changed because of the depression in the late 1920s

-The depression left millions of Americans out of work, and the resulting campaign to keep women home

-The expectations of society were that a woman's place was 'in the home'

-This view remained largely unchanged until the events of the 1940s SPORTS Name: Gertrude Caroline Ederle
Born: New York City, New York, 1906–2003

First woman to swim English Channel
Gold Medalist, 400-meter freestyle relay, Paris Olympics, 1924
Bronze Medalist, 100- and 400-meter freestyle, Paris Olympics, 1924
The New York native sets 29 U.S. and world swimming records
Taught deaf children to swim after water damaged her own hearing
"I just knew it could be done, it had to be done, and I did it." Female Athlete: The majority of Canadians voted Liberal and King was the Prime Minister again! - The Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution :
Prohibits an US citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex
Ratified on August 18, 1920
Boosted woman's confidence
It made them feel less like property
Made them feel like they had a purpose in the society
The 19th amendment sparked woman to speak up for themselves and take on a new role in society not just the role of a "homemaker"
Because of this act it inspired other woman worldwide Women's Rights: •Born on January 11, 1885
•An architect of some of the outstanding political achievements on behalf of the woman in the 19th century.
•Believed that woman and men should have equal rights
•She joined the National American Woman's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
•"I never doubted that equal rights was the right direction. Most reforms, most problems are complicated. But to me there is nothing complicated about ordinary equality." Stated by Alice Paul- interview, 1977 Alice Paul: Works Cited
Adroyad, Lyncon. "A Brief History of Canada - 1930 to 1959." A Brief History of Canada - 1930 to 1959. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
Boucher, Marc T. JSTOR. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
Goldon, Manual. "Canada A Country by Consent: The Great Depression: New Political Parties 1930s." Canada A Country by Consent: The Great Depression: New Political Parties 1930s. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
Matrre, Layan. "L’Encyclopédie De L’histoire Du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia." Canada, Political History. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
Raloyandl, Ellee. "Great Depression." - The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.

Stoffel , Holden. Ed. "Catherwood, Ethel (1908-87)." The Encyclopedia Of Saskatchewan. University Of Regina, 16 Mar. 1998. Web. 17 Dec. 2006. <http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/catherwood_ethel_1908-87.html>.
"Women Go to Work." American Decades. Ed. Vincent Tompkins. Vol. 3. Gale Cengage, 2000. eNotes.com. 4 Apr, 2013 <http://www.enotes.com/1920-lifestyles-social-trends-american-decades/>
Simon, Kate. "Women in the 1920s." slideshare. N.p., Nov 20, 2011. Web. Nov 20, 2011. <https://bay172.mail.live.com/default.aspx?id=64855#n=437144738&fid=171a37bb305646e0bad4349893e5d76f&cid=13370000-0000-0000-0000-43f281111247&fv=1>.
Insight, Electoral. Ed. "Agnes Macphail: The First Woman Elected To The House Of Commons." Elections Canada. N.p., 16 Nov. 1999. Web. 2010-6-14. <http://www.elections.ca/res/eim/article_search/article.asp?id=108&lang=e&frmPageSize=>.

Hughes, Ellen. "Break Records ." Jane Rogers. Smithsonian Institution , n.d. Web. **Date Retrieved**. <http://amhistory.si.edu/sports/exhibit/firsts/ederle/>.

Heel, Tar. Ed. "The Golden Age of Sports." NORTH CAROLINA MUSEUM OF HISTORY. Cultural Resources, 19 Mar. 2004. Web. 8 Nov, 2005. <http://www.ncmuseumofhistory.org/collateral/articles/s04.golden.age.sports.pdf>. Prictures

don, Manual. "Canada A Country by Consent: The Great Depression: New Political Parties 1930s." Canada A Country by Consent: The Great Depression: New Political Parties 1930s. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.

Matrre, Layan. "L’Encyclopédie De L’histoire Du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia." Canada, Political History. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.

Raloyandl, Ellee. "Great Depression." - The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.

Stoffel , Holden. Ed. "Catherwood, Ethel (1908-87)." The Encyclopedia Of Saskatchewan. University Of Regina, 16 Mar. 1998. Web. 17 Dec. 2006.
<http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/catherwood_ethel_1908-87.html>.

"Women Go to Work." American Decades. Ed. Vincent Tompkins. Vol. 3. Gale Cengage, 2000. eNotes.com. 4 Apr, 2013
<http://www.enotes.com/1920-lifestyles-social-trends-american-decades/>
Simon,

"1920s The Roaring Life in Canada." 1920s The Roaring Life in Canada. 09 Apr. 2013 <http://www.slideshare.net/mrbjwalters/1920s-the-roaring-life-in-canada>.
Comvelle, Lina D. "Canadian History 1920s and 1930s Timeline." Timetoast. 09 Apr. 2013 <http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/81615>.
"L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia." Canada, Political History. 09 Apr. 2013 <http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/CanadaPoliticalHistory.htm>.
Leon, Anton M. " ." Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. 09 Apr. 2013 <http://www.markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca/history/history/canadian_unit3.html>.
Redlet, Armsein K. "Portal:Canadian politics." Wikipedia. 04 July 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. 09 Apr. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Canadian_politics>. Coco Chanel’s real name is Gabrielle Bonheur
Chanel.Coco Chanel was born in France, on August 19, 1883. She died in January 10, 1971
Coco Chanel was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her an important figure in 20th-century fashion.
She was one of the most important people in 1920s. COCO CHANEL
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