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Transcript of Electricity
Identify and define common electrical terms.
Discuss and recognize electrical safety devices.
Explain different electrical modalities and their uses.
Explain the effects of ultraviolet and infrared light on the skin. Electricity is the directional flow of electrons(negatively charged subatomic particles)between atoms that creates a form of energy capable of producing magnetic,chemical, or thermal effects while in motion. ELECTRICAL CURRENT
Is the flow of electricity along a CONDUCTOR.All substances can be classified a Conductors or Insulators,depending on the ease with which an electric current can be transmitted to them. A CONDUCTOR :IS any substance,material, or medium that conducts ELECTRICITY. Most metals,carbon,the human body, and watery solutions of acids and salts are good conductors of electricity. An Insulator: Is a substance that does not easily transmit electricity;Rubber,silk,dry wood,glass and cement are good insulators. An electric wire is composed of fine,twisted metal threads,which act as a conductor, and a covering of silk or rubber, which is the insulator. A complete circuit is the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source. A Rheostat is an adjustable resistor, such as a light dimmer,that is used for controlling the current in a circuit. TYPES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT:
ALTERNATING CURRENT Direct current:Is a constant,even -flowing current
that travels in one direction only and produces a chemical reaction.Battery-operated instruments such as flashlights, cell phones,and certain tools use direct current. A CONVERTER:Is an apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current. ALTERNATING CURRENT:
Is a rapid and interrupted current,flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction,that produces a mechanical action; Electric clippers,hair dryers and other tools that plug into a wall outlet . A RECTIFIER:Is an apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current;Rechargeable cordless clippers and battery charges use a rectifier to convert the AC current from an electrical wall outlet to the DC current needed to recharge the batteries. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS A VOLT:IS A UNIT OF ELECTRICAL PRESSURE THAT PUSHES THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS FORWARD THROUGH A CONDUCTOR.A higher voltage indicates more pressure,more force, and more power.If the voltage is lower,the current is weaker. An amp or ampere:Is the standard unit for measuring the strenght of an electric current and also the rate of flow of charge in a conductor. A MILLIAMPERE:Is one thousandth of an ampere.The current for facial and scalp treatments is measured in milliamperes as an ampere current would be too strong. AN ohm:Is the unit of electrical resistance in an
electric current. A watt:Is the unit of power (amperes multiplied by volts)and indicates HOW MUCH ELECTRIC ENERGY is being used in one second.A 40 watt bulb uses 40 watts of energy per second. SAFETY DEVICES A FUSE:Is a safety device that prevents the overheating of electrical wires by preventing excessive current from passing through a circuit.IT blows or melts when the wire becomes too hot from overloading the circuit with too much current from too many appliances. A CIRCUIT BREAKER:Is a switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of an overload.In modern electric circuits,circuit breakers have replaced fuses. A GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Is a life saving device that senses imbalances within an electric circuit.When it POPS open it means that it has sensed a ground fault or current leaking to ground. THE PRINCIPLES OF GROUNDING
Is another important way of promoting
electrical safety.All electrical appliances must have at least two electrical connections.These two "live"
connections supply current and complete the circuit.Aground connection is a third connection that carries the current safely away to the ground in the event of a short circuit. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SAFETY
The protection and safety of the
client should be the primary concern of
barbers and stylists.All electrical equipment should
be inspected regularly to determine that it is in safe working condition.Carefull attention to electrical safety helps to eliminate accidental shocks,fires, and burns.A review of the following reminders will help ensure the safe use electricity in your business. A UL SYMBOL AS IT APPEARS ON ELECTRICAL DEVICES All electrical appliances should be UL certified. STUDY THE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USING ANY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. DISCONNECT APPLIANCES WHEN NOT USE. KEEP ALL WIRES, PLUGS AND EQUIPMENT IN GOOD REPAIR. INSPECT ALL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FRECUENTLY. DO NOT OVERLOAD OUTLETS. AVOID GETTING ELECTRICAL CORDS WET. WHEN USING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, PROTECT THE CLIENT AT ALL TIMES. DO NOT TOUCH ANY METAL WHILE USING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE. DO NOT HANDLE ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE WITH WET HANDS DO NOT ALLOW THE CLIENT TO TOUCH ANY METAL SURFACES WHILE BEING TREATED WITH ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. DO NOT LEAVE THE ROOM WHILE THE CLIENT IS CONECTED TO AL ELECTRICAL DEVICE. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CLEAN AROUND AN ELECTRIC OUTLET WHILE AQUIPMENT IS PLUGGED IN. DO NOT TOUCH TWO METALLIC OBJECTS AT THE SAME TIME IF EITHER IS CONNECTED TO AN ELECTRIC CURRENT. DO NOT STEP ON, OR SET OBJECTS ON,ELECTRICAL CORDS. DO NOT ALLOW ELECTRICAL CORDS TO BECOME TWISTED OR BENT;THE FINE WIRES INSIDE THE CORD WILL BREAK AND THE INSULATION WILL WEAR AWAY FROM THE WIRES. DISCONNECT APPLIANCES BY PULLING ON THE PLUG, NOT ON THE CORD. DO NOT REPAIR ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES UNLESS YOU ARE QUALIFIED TO DO SO. LIGHT AND HEAT ENERGY A CATALYST
An action or substance that speeds up a reaction,and is used to make reactions happen more quickly.Some catalyst use heat as an energy source while others use light. ELECTROTHERAPY Electronic facial and scalp treatments are commonly referred to as electrotherapy.Different types of electric currents are used for facial and scalp treatments.These types of currents are called MODALITIES and each one produces a different effect on the skin. An electrode is an applicator used to direct the electric current from the machine to the clients skin.Electrodes are available in many shapes and are usually made of CARBON,GLASS OR METAL. POLARITIES
Polarity indicates the negative or positive pole of an electric current.The positive pole is called an anode is usually red ,and may be marked with a "P" or plus (+)sign.The negative electrode is called a cathode.It is usually black and marked with an "N" or a minus(-)sign. MODALITIES
Are the currents used in electronic facial and scalp treatments.The four main modalities are The Galvanic,Sinusoidal,faradic, and tesla high-frequency currents. Galvanic current
It is a constant and direct current,using a negative and positive pole,that is reduced to a safe, low-voltage level.Galvanic current produces chemical changes when passed through body tissues and fluids, and is used to create chemical and ionic reactions in the skin. DESINCRUSTATION
Is used to facilitate deep pore cleansing.During this process galvanic current is used to create a chemical reaction that acts to emulsify the sebum and waste in the pores.An electropositive solution is applied to the skin, and the negative pole is used to make direct contact with the solution while the client holds the positive pole. Iontophoresis means the introductions of ions.It is a process in which galvanic current is used to introduce water-soluble products into the deeper layers of the skin. faradic current
Is an alternating and interrupted current capable of producing a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.Two electrodes are required to complete the faradic circuit.Faradic current causes muscular contractions and may be used in scalp and facia treatments.Some of the benefits:
IMPROVE MUSCLE TONE INCREASED BLOOD CIRCULATION INCREASED METABOLISM REMOVAL OF WASTE PRODUCTS STIMULATION OF HAIR GROWTH INVIGORATION OF THE AREA BEING TREATED INCREASED GLANDULAR ACTIVITY RELIEF OF BLOOD CONGESTION SINUSOIDAL CURRENT
May be used during scalp and facial manipulations.It is an alternating current that produces mechanical contractions in the muscles and also requires the use of two electrodes. TESLA HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT
Is characterized by a high rate of oscillation that produces heat.It is commonly called the violet ray, and is used for both scalp and facial treatments.Due to its rapid oscillation,Tesla current does not cause muscular contractions. LIGHT THERAPY
Also known as phototherapy, is the application of light waves to the skin for the treatment of disorders such as dry skin or mild skin eruptions. Light therapy machines are designed to emit specific wavelengths of the light spectrum.In the human body,this light is changed into electromechanical energy that creates biochemical reactions in the cells that can stimulate the immune system.Different light rays will produce heat,chemical reactions, or germicidal effects Visible light is electromagnetic radiation tha we cab see,also called radiant energy..The distance between two successive peaks is called the wavelenght. Visible light is the part of the spectrum that we can see and makes up 35 percent of natural sunlight. Ultraviolet rays and infrared rays are also forms of electromagnetic radiation,but they are invisible to the human eye.Invisible rays makes up 65 percent of natural sunlight at the earth's surface. VISIBLE LIGHTS
are the the primary light sources used for scalp and facial treatments.The bulbs used for visible light therapy are white,red and blue.White lights is referred to as a combination light because it consist of all the visible rays of the spectrum.Red lights produces the most heat and penetrates the deepest.Blue light contains few heat rays,is the least penetrating, and provides germicidal and chemical benefits.