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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Transcript of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
1971 - 1977
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was elected as the 4th President Of Pakistan on 20 December 1971.
He also became the Cheif Martial Law Administrator.
He was a member of Pakistan People's Party (PPP).
The 1970 election had given PPP the majority in the National Asslembly. Bhutto now intended to use that majority to introduce radical measures to bring changes in Pakistan.
Controlling the Army
Bhutto was the Cheif Martial Law Adminitrator even though he was not a military man. He was determined to limit the powers of the army so that it would not intervene to threat his policies.
Control was established by:
The Simla Agreement
It was vital to restore diplomatic relations with India, so that the prisoners of war captured by the Indians in East Pakistan could be returned.
On 2 July 1972 Bhutto signed the Simla Agreement with the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. They agreed to return the prisoner on the condition that the Kashmir issue would be discussed directly with India and not in International Forums.
Bhutto had not given up the claim that Pakistan spoke for Kashmir because it was rightly the part of Pakistan.
What he had done was:
The 1973 Constitution
On 14 August 1973, the new Constitution, which relied heavily on the principles of the 1956 constitution, became law. The most significant were:
There would be two Houses, the Senate and the Assembly. The Assembly would be elected for a period of 5 years and the members of the Senate would be nominated in equal numbers from each province.
The leader of party with a majority in the Assembly would become Prime Minister and select a Cabinet.
The President became largely a figurehead, whose orders had to be signed by the Prime Minister.
Pakistan was a Islamic Republic and both the Prsident and Prime Minister had to be muslims.
All fundamental basic human rights were guaranteed.
Pakistan was a federal state. Each province had its own Assembly, elected by universal adult suffrage, with the majority party forming the provincial gorvernment.
Elections - 1977
In 1977 Bhutto called a general election. He was confident that his government's record and the lack of effective opposition would result in an easy PPP victory. However, once an electio was called, nine of the various opposition parties combined to form the Pakistan National Alliance [PNA]. There were two issues which united the opposition in the election campaign. They all wanted to end the rule of Bhutto and the PPP and they were united in desire to rule Pakistan according to Islamic Law. The PNA began to attract big audiences at its election rallies and was clearly gaining support. Bhutto's supporters were forced to act and PNA rallies became subject to attacks from gangs of armed thugs.
The results of the election showed a landslide victory for the PPP. Of the 200 seats contested it won 154, against the PNA's 38. There was an immediate outcry of protest from the PNA, which accused the government' of rigging the results and demanded new elections.
Steps to Downfall
Bhutto refused to agree to fresh elections and the PNA organised protests against the government. Soon there was rioting in many towns and cities and the FSF could not stop the unrest. Bhutto was forced to negotiate with PNA. He offered fresh elections in some of the disputed constituencies. However, at the same time he turned to the army for help. On 19 April he declared a state of emergency, placing an under martial law. The PNA leadership were arrested and some were imprisoned. On 5 July army staged a coup, named ' Operation Fairplay'. Bhutto and all major political leaders were arrested that night. Two days later, General Zia ul-Haq announced the suspending of the constitution and dissolution of all assemblies.
Removing the most important army leaders (29 in in his first four months of power).Amongst these were the head of the Air Force, Air Marshal Rahim Khan and the Commander-in-Cheif of the army, General Gul Hassan.
Appointing his own leaders for example, General Tikka Khan was placed in charge of the army in a new post named, 'Chief of Army Staff'.
Setting up the Federal Security Force (FSF) from October 1972, a government controlled military force set up 'to assist the police force'.
Reduced his dependence on the army by making further fighting with India less likely.
Improved his government's international reputation, by being seen as willing to negotiate to maintain peace.
Increased his popularity in Pakistan by bringing home the prisoners of war.
Control industrial output and channel investment into industrialisation.
Raise the worker's living and working standards.
Allow the workers to set up unions.
Even out the inequalities that had collected most of the industrial wealth into a few hands.
Create wealth to help fund other government reforms.
Raise the popularity of the PPP with the urban populace.
Bhutto believed that improved technology and better farming methods would raise production. Hence landowners could maintain their income on smaller, more productive, areas of land. He therefore cut the ceiling to 250 acres (irrigated) or 500 acres (unirrigated). The surplus land could be sold to the smaller peasant farmers to make better profits. Land would also be available to allow many people to own their own farms for the first time.
Bhutto wanted to give tentants security of tenure of the land they farmed. He introduced a measure giving tenants the first sight of purchase of land farmed by them. This meant that landowners could not sell land to a third party who might then evict the tenants. Such a measure encouraged tenants to make imprrovements on their land.
To eradicate ignorance.
To provide education for all, including women, the mentally impaired and illiterate adults.
To ensure that the school's curriculum meets Pakistan's social, political and economic needs.
To ensure uniformity of subjects in each school and college of Pakistan.
To raise the self-confidence of a common man.
To raise aspirations for higher education among the youth.
To develop person's personality and potential.
To develop a 'Pakistani' culture and identity and national pride.
Health and Social Reforms
The central plank of the reforms was the introduction of Rural Health Centres [RHCs] and Basic Health Units [BHU] in urban areas to provide more widespread healthcare. The plan was to set 1 RHC for every 60,000 people and 1 BHU for every 20,000 people.
Training colleges for doctor and nurses were expected to admit students on merit . Once qualified, doctors had to work the first year wherever the government placed them. So that instead of working only in big cities they could be assigned a post in any small town or village.
The sale of medicine under brand names was also banned. This practice, common in West, allows drug companies to sell new medicines under a patented name and stops other companies manufacturing the drug under its medical name. This measure reduced the cost of medicines. They were made available without any prescription and could be bought at any pharmacy.
Bhutto organised the Civil Service into a smaller number of levels and unified pay scales.This removed some of the old, unnecessary distinctions between types of civil servant.
He also reformed entry requirements so that people could join at any level, even the more senior ones, without having to work their way up. He said that it would enable the CSP recruit high quality staff, but his opponents complained that all he was doing was setting up a system of patronage where he could reward his party members with posts in civil service.
Presented to :- Miss Nazia Hafeez
Presented by :- Hyaa Bint Mujeeb