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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
After winning the war, the British had control over much more land and needed a way to govern it.
Britain wanted to keep tight control over the land and issued the Proclamation of 1763. This proclamation discourage American colonists from settling in the Ohio Valley since British administration was light. Protesting Begins The French and Indian war was very costly, so to help pay for it the British began taxing American colonists.
The Sugar Act was passed which increased the taxes on molasses and sugar for the colonists.
Many colonists felt it was unfair for the British to tax them since they had no representation in Parliament. A secret society was formed by American colonists called The Sons of Liberty.
Colonists met with the Stamp Act congress and persuaded them to repeal the act. The act was repealed, but they also passed a new act called the Declaratory Act was introduced. This act stated that Britain had the right to legislate the 13 colonies. This allowed the British to tax American colonists whether they liked it or not. 1765 1767 In 1767 the British Parliament made it known that they had the right to tax colonists.
The Townshed Act put taxes on all imported goods. American colonists resented the new tax raise and boycotted most British goods because of it.
Many colonists began to fear that the British government was becoming a tyranny. People felt that their civil liberties were being taken away from them.
People in Boston were about ready to riot and met in Faneuil Hall
to discuss the events taking place around them. During the meeting British troops marched through the town streets. The people of Boston decided to show restraint to the soldiers. New Taxes Cause Problems 1770 Late in the evening on March 5, 1770, a great massacre occurred that would change everything. Around 60 frustrated townspeople swarmed British guards at the Customs house. When British enforcements arrived the angry people began to through whatever they could get their hands on at the soldiers.
Things escalated very quickly and in the confusion of it all, the British troops opened fire on civilians. Five men were killed and many others injured. A Great Massacre 1773 The events of the Boston Massacre made Parliament repeal some of the Townshed duties. Many of the colonists were still very upset with what happened in 1770. Colonists grew even more upset with Parliament when they decided to pass the Tea Act.
This act gave Britain complete control over the trading of tea in American colonies. American colonists decided to act against the Tea Act in what is now know as The Boston Tea Party.
On a cold night in December, a group of colonists dressed as Native Americans stormed ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. This damaged Britain's economy greatly and in response the Restraining Acts were put into action. The harbor was closed to trade and town meetings were banned. Only firewood and food were allowed into the port. Tea Sabotage How America Won Its Independence From Britain. The ideas of the Enlightenment spread thought Europe and American colonies. A philosopher named John Locke said that if a government did not give people natural rights of life it could be overthrown. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke presented this idea to the people and they agreed with it.
It was time for action, it was time for a Declaration of Independence from Britain. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a new resolution to the Congress that declared the 13 colonies free and independent states. Between June 11 and June 28, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. This declaration became a great symbol of freedom and liberty for the American colonies. A Declaration of Independence 1776 Time For A Revolution The American Revolution began in Massachusetts when the British decided to seize the colonists’ weapons stored in Concord, about 20 miles from Boston. This is when colonist Paul Revere and William Dawes went on their famous midnight ride across the countryside, yelling the colonists that the "British are coming!"
The following day the American militia battled British troops at Lexington near Concord. The British retreated back to Boston after setting fire to a few buildings and being hailed with sniper fire from the colonists. This batte became known as the Battles of Lexington and Concord. 1775 After the battle at Concord, the colonists took control of Boston. The British put the city under a military blockade. Patriot forces waited atop two hills overlooking Boston harbor for a British attack. To conserve ammunition, a Patriot commander ordered his troops not to fire on the British until they saw the whites of their eyes.
The British advanced forward and captured both hills, but the colonists felt like they won since they inflicted over 1,000 casualties. The colonists had less than 500 men to fight so they tried their best to avoid war as much as possible. The Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 In August 1776, the American Revolution was almost at an end. British troops under the leadership of General William Howe attacked Continental forces in Brooklyn Heights on Long Island, New York. Almost a quarter of the Continental Army was killed in that attack.
George Washington was not in New York at that time, so he could not lead his troops. When Washington arrived a few days later, he fortified the area where his troops were located since they were in a dangerous situation. Stormy weather delayed the British from attacking Washington's troops, so they were able to retreat back to Manhattan 1776 Battle of Brooklyn Heights Battle of Trenton In this battle, George Washington led his forces on a surprise attack against British troops in Trenton, New Jersey.
On a dark Christmas night, Washington got the jump on the British troops and in less than an hour they had surrendered. 1776 Battle of Princeton After the Battle of Trenton, British General Charles Cornwallis sent more of his troops to Trenton in January. Washington was ready and surprised the British once again. Washington and his forces marched behind the British troops and attacked at Princeton.
The British occupied Philadelphia where the seat of the Continental Congress was located and sent that body into hiding. The British also controlled New York City and most of the waters in the eastern seaboard. The British began preparing an attack from Canada into upstate New York. This would force New England to be cut off from the other colonies. Battle of Saratoga 1777 1777 The Battle of Saratoga was fought in northern New York in October. This battle served as a critical turning point for the revolution. This was the colonists’ first major victory.
British General John Burgoyne marched troops south from Canada and defeated American forces at Ticonderoga.
British troops continued on and were later met with colonial opposition. After a ten day in Saratoga, the British troops surrendered to American Commander Horatio Gates.
When the Americans were victorious, France began to recognize America's independence and formed a permanent alliance with the new nation. France provided military help and supplies. Battle of Vincennes 1778-1779 This battle was led by George Rogers Clark who fought to secure the Illinois country. In February, Clark’s troops surprised the British forces and won. The British forces in the west did not cause any further problems. Battle of Yorktown 1781 General Washington sent his troops to surround British troops in the south. The Patriots battled for the city of Yorktown in Virginia. On October 19, British general Charles Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington. and Yorktown was his. Treaty of Paris 1783 The war ended with the signing of The Treaty of Paris.
Britain began to recognize the independence of the United States. Bibliography Apex Learning Inc.(2012),2.1.1: Study: Discontent in the American Colonies &2.1.3: Study: American Victory. <www.apexvs.com>
Wikimedia Foundation Inc.(21 October, 2012).American RevolutionaryWar. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War> The American Revolution By: Vince Fotunato