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TO WHAT EXTENT ARE ASIAN CITIES SUCCESSFUL IN CONTROLLING AUTOMOBILE OWNERSHIP AND USE?

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YVONNE HAN

on 19 April 2010

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Transcript of TO WHAT EXTENT ARE ASIAN CITIES SUCCESSFUL IN CONTROLLING AUTOMOBILE OWNERSHIP AND USE?

TO WHAT EXTENT ARE ASIAN CITIES
SUCCESSFUL IN CONTROLLING
AUTOMOBILE OWNERSHIP & USE?
Indonesia’s automobile fleet grows at 8% yearly since 1982, and this increase is most evident in her capital city, with the growth in Jakarta nearing 15% a year.

In South Korea, automobile fleets are expanding at 30% a year.

Thailand’s motor vehicle fleet grew by a startling 40% just in the year between 1989 and 1990 alone. For each month during that year, 25-30,000 new motor vehicles were being registered in Bangkok .
Automobile Use Produces
NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES Congestion In Bangkok, travel speeds average about 9 kmph and falling, it can easily take commuters 4 hours or more to travel from the outlying areas to the center of town .
Pollution Due to traffic delays, estimated loss to:

Bangkok
= 1/3of its potential city product

Manila
=100 billion Pesos yearly Air quality in Bangkok has deteriorated so critically that at least one million of the city’s residents were treated for smog-related health problems such as emphysema and asthma, in 1990

Also, the reduced mental capacity of children in Bangkok was also found to be associated with exposure to high ambient lead concentrations Noise level of any busy street in Dhaka, Bangladesh, averages at 70 dB, with the sound of vehicles being 95 dB .

This exceeded the tolerance level according to WHO standards.

Generally:
a 60 dB sound can make a man deaf temporarily

a 100 dB sound can cause complete deafness Traffic Accidents In Vietnam, between 1990 and 2002, the number of traffic accidents increased at 10 – 30% annually Estimated overall economic costs of road traffic accidents to Vietnam

= 3,222,120 million VND (0.54% of her GDP in 2004) Solutions! DEMAND SIDE POLICIES Congestion Pricing Charge users of public goods for the negative externality they generate

Internalize the externality Improve public transport decreases the demand for car travel Increase fuel tax Singapore's ERP Gantry-based electronic road pricing system

based on a pay-as-you-use principle.

=> optimize road usage, by charging motorists when they use the road during peak hours. How successful? maintained an optimal speed range:
Criticisms High infrastructural costs.



Lost consumer surplus for former drivers.

Decline in car trips is not significant.




Costly on-board units and street furniture required for enforcement. Only resulted in reductions in trips crossing the gantries while vehicle travel increases elsewhere.  difficult to accurately price the cost of congestion and hence the congestion tax.

How high a price to charge? Hong Kong Land development scheme

transport operators are given the rights to use lands near stations, depots, or tracks for property development.

MTR Corporation Ltd. and KCR Corporation generate profits from land development to cover the partial cost of construction, but not operation, of the urban rail systems. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai, India Cable car in San Francisco High-speed rail

significantly faster than conventional rail

> 260 kmph

Tokaido Shinkansen line carries as many as

(more passengers than all other high speed rail
lines in the world combined.)


Japan of the daily journeys are on public transport, making it the highest rate in the world. How successful? How successful? > 90% 20,000 passengers per hr per direction 45 - 65 km/h
20 - 30 km/h for expressways.
for arterial roads.

They dont subsidize public transport fares.

Rather, subsidies were given in part to improve the services of public transportation.
(e.g. increasing the frequency and speed)
people value time savings more than fare savings.

ridership may increase, easing traffic congestions on roads.

One common factor: excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel
-> increases cost per unit of all automobile travel
-> people will drive less E.g. Taiwan & Singapore

car parks with connections to public transport that allow commuters and others wishing to travel into city centres to leave their personal vehicles in a car park and transfer to a public transport for the rest of their trip. Criticisms Park-and-ride (if successful) leads to an increased number of short car trips
contributes disproportionately to air pollution owing to the 'cold start' effect.

'Kiss-and-ride'
a variation in which a family member drops off the traveller and returns home
no solution as it leads to increased empty running of private cars.

Biggest problem? Psychological.
Once you've started your journey in a car, you've got little reason not to drive it all the way to your destination. has hiked fuel prices by an average of , saving about 34.5 trillion rupiah and kicking off a series of street demonstrations.





raised oil prices by about
29% 10% Indonesia India SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES
Build more roads Command & Control measures limit the quantity of cars Singapore's COE People bid under a specific category.

If the quote is 195 then the top 195 bids are successful and pay the Quota Premium (the price offered by the 195th bid.)

In early 1999 the average premium for cars:

< 1000cc was S$27,367
1001 - 1600cc S$32,610 and for big cars
1601 - 2000cc S$30,566 public transport share rose from
in 1974
to over today
How successful? 46% 60% widen if congestion tax revenue > road cost.

HOWEVER, there are many instances where widened roads did not experience less congestion.

because dd for peak-period travel is highly elastic

"LATENT DEMAND"
Thailand Thai politicians often claim to solve Bangkok's congestion problem
by building more expressways, and develop mass transit.

even with investment levels averaging at least


to build a series of proposed mass transit systems and to expand freeways

the best forecast is for average traffic speed in the central city to remain unchanged from current levels

due to corruption, poor governement funding and planning
$US 1 billion/year (9kmph during peak hrs) Encourage use of
non-motorized vehicles China offered employee commuter subsidies for those bicycling to work

allocated extensive urban street space to NMV traffic.

This strategy reduced the growth of public transport subsidies while meeting most mobility need.


How successful?
of urban vehicle trips in China are by bicycle

average journey times in China's cities appear to be comparable to those of many other more motorized Asian cities

more favorable consequences on the environment, transport system costs, and traffic safety. 50 - 80 % CONCLUSION Success stories are mainly from more developed Asian countries
(e.g. Japan, Singapore and Hongkong)

Less developed Asian countries need to eradicate corruption &
develop more viable long-term urban planning strategies for successful transport management




Curb automobile ownership & use
&
Improve on public transport provision Win- win situation: Problem!
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