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WEEK 6, The Northcliffe Revolutuion and the rise of the popukar press
Transcript of WEEK 6, The Northcliffe Revolutuion and the rise of the popukar press
*Daily newspapers emerged more slowy. - Daily mail in 1911 first million selling daily newspaper. circulation 60,000 circulation 275,000 As the Demand for newspapers increased with the growth of literacy it Expanded the British press 1870 Education act brought to rise in adult literacy.
1900 97 %of Britain was literate consumption of newspapers simply determined by literacy. Decline of cheap labour hours of work increased leisure time which provided demand to purchase newspapers Rapid industrialization- Linotype, telegraphs
, telephones ,typewriters and cameras all transformed the practice of news gathering DISTRIBUTION news gathering was further improved through growth of railway system . W.H smith established a monolopy over distribution of newspapers to agents. they also sold cheaper books and newspapers The New journalism The growth of press accompanied changes in the nature of journalism Matthew Arnold labeled new journalism as 'feather - brained' New journalism according to critics was responsible for the debasement of cultural standards. Its emphasis on entertainment and amusement instead of instructions Edward Picey - Prominent journalist of the period. ~readers have their mental food in minces and snippets not in chops or joints 3 kinds of changes in British press before world war one.
1 . in the conetent
2. in their layout
3. in the economic structure of the industry
Less interest was expressed in politics or current affairs and more attention paid to the techniques and skills of making newspapers more entertaining and eye-catching in an environment of growing competition THE TIMES
was NOT to discover the truth, but to emphasise on the polemical power of the pen. OPINIONS and COMMENTARY were the essence of good journalism Northcliffe's ownership of The Times, the Daily Mail and other newspapers meant that his editorials wielded great influence over both "the classes and the mass *He produced weekly magazines, facts, puzzle books , jokes and stories.
*profits and experience of his publishing empire led Harmsworth to launch the daily mail In an era before TV, radio or internet, that meant that Northcliffe dominated the British press " For example, his newspapers—especially The Times—reported the Shell Crisis of 1915 with such zeal that it brought down the wartime government of Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith, forcing him to form a coalition government. * Advertising has always played an important part in the development of the British Press. * Northcliffe’s most crucial change was to introduce financial records of circulation figures and charge rates of advertising based on the size of circulation. * The growth of advertisement equaled a more independent readership and circulation. * Post 20th Century the ‘Middle Men’ in newspapers was on the rise. The media buyers who were responsible for buying space in the newspapers for adverts. * 1866-1896: a growth in magazines arose from 557 to 2097. Aimed to deliver to specialist groups, trade, technical and professional to advertisers. * Newspaper readerships profiles were crucial in decided what product to advertise, this contributed to the central press finances post 1920s.
*The 1930s saw a decline of provincial newspapers; in the 1921 there was 41 morning and 89 evening newspapers and buy 1937 it dropped to 28 and 75. *The reasons for the decline was because of a number of things such as: improvements of transport therefore Fleet street newspapers could expand to all parts of Britain in comparison with Europe and North America.
*The national press was increasing rapidly in Britain. *After WWI there was a contract in the number of national papers, the rapid rising circulations was shared by a number of newspaper titles. *The ownership remained in the hands of a small group of people. *The Northcliffe Revolution ushered changes in the British Press; was concentrated in the hands of family concerns. *By 1921 Northcliffe had established a vast press empire.
*The emergence of mass circulation newspapers and the concentration of ownership meant that Press Barons had power, which threated the development of democracy.
*The era of press barons shaped our perception of newspaper ownership.
* Brought a new style into newspapers, they exercised more control over daily operation of their publications.
* Newspaper owners previously had interviewed the operations of their titles before the press barons but the Northcliffe’s revolution blurred divisions between editorial and business aspects.
* The power of the barons brought commercial interest and values firmly into the day-to-day editorial decision – making process.
*Press Barons saw newspapers as a way to show political views and shape issues of the day. Northcliffe was clear on achieving political power and influence.
*The more powerful the newspaper, the less powerful the politician’
*They wanted to be representatives of readers in the same way politicians were.
* Commercial press loosened bonds between politicians and newspapers. Allowing press owners to be used as papers to serve their own agenda rather than the interest of parties or politicians. The Press Barons
*Press Barons sort out to influence politics; they were successful to a certain extent with WWI as newspapers were used to sell conscriptions to the public and change army tactics through press campaigns against poor leadership.
* Some did end in failure as Northcliffe failed to become a member of parliament despite buying local newspapers and making then support him.
* Power of the press had was to provide support for the status quo, selecting certain issues for discussions and ignoring others, choosing to promote change or deciding not to.
*Influence of the Press barons is measure by in direct influence in helping shape the environment of politics. The political power of the press barons