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Transcript of Apple Lisa
or Local Integrated System Architecture
Reasons of failure
Successful aspects (cont.)
Reasons of failure
Although Apple spent an incredible amount of time and money developing the Lisa, four years and $50 million, it turned out to be an unpopular system, due to its high price (it cost $9995 at product launch) and few available software applications. It worked very slowly. Programming for Lisa was extremely difficult: the same second computer and expensive development environment were required.
Additionally, Apple always delay Lisa`s release date which also helped to create its demise. The release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984, which was faster and much less expensive, was the most significant factor
in the Lisa's death.
In 1986 the Lisa was discontinued.
Our group case study provides a few analysis about a project that failed. We prepared the background of a project, found its successful aspects and reasons why it did not become popular.
After, we tried to figure out some recommendations that aim to correct problems in order to implement project successfully in the future. For our case study we chose Apple`s project “LISA” that could be the personal computer with a huge demand due to innovative for those time Graphical User Interface.
With the help of Sun Remarketing in 1989, Apple disposed of approximately 2700 unsold Lisas in a guarded landfill in Logan, Utah, in order to receive a tax write-off on the unsold inventory.
So, our case study was accomplished in order to analyze the reasons of failure of a specific project. We analyzed Apple Lisa project, a personal computer with the graphical user interface that might perform many certain functions. But it was not succeed due to factors like high cost and slow operating system. Also, this project did not meet a main triple constraint – the time. Perhaps, Lisa creators believed that it would be successful, since this computer was the first one with the GUI, but they forgot about public that would not be able to pay such money for it. Also, there was the internal competition with Macintosh products that were becoming more preferable on the market.
The Lisa is the first commercial computer with a GUI, or Graphical User Interface designed by Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. Prior to the Lisa, all computers were text based - you typed commands on the keyboard to make the system respond.
Now, with the Lisa, you just point-and-click at tiny pictures on the screen with a small rolling device called a “mouse”. Officially, “Lisa” stood for “Local Integrated Software Architecture”, but it was also the name of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs' daughter. Development of the Lisa began in 1978.
The Lisa was first introduced on January 19, 1983 and cost US$9995 (approximately $23426.3 in today's dollars). It was the second personal computer system with a graphical user interface (GUI) to be sold commercially, the first being the Xerox Star. The Lisa was introduced into a number of larger offices, and the number of people who had used a Lisa was much larger than the number of Lisas sold.
The Lisa was a more advanced system of this time in many aspects, such as its inclusion of protected memory, preemptive multitasking, a generally more sophisticated hard disk based operating system, a built-in screensaver, an advanced calculator with a paper tape, support for up to 2 megabytes (MB) of RAM, expansion slots, a numeric keypad, data corruption protection schemes such as block sparing, non-physical file names (with the ability to have multiple documents with the same name), and a larger higher-resolution display.
The Lisa operating system featured preemptive multitasking and protected memory. The Lisa also organized its files in hierarchal directories, making the use of large hard drives practical. Lisa has two main user modes: the Lisa Office System and the Workshop. The Lisa Office System was eventually renamed “7/7”, in reference to the seven supplied application programs: LisaWrite, LisaCalc, LisaDraw, LisaGraph, LisaProject, LisaList, and LisaTerminal, which could perform any task that an average user required.
Within a few months of the Lisa's introduction in the US, fully translated versions of the software and documentation were commercially available for British, French, German, Italian, and Spanish markets, followed by several Scandinavian versions shortly thereafter
Each localized version requires grammatical, linguistic, and cultural adaptations throughout the user interface, including formats for dates, numbers, times, currencies, sorting, even for word and phrase order in dialog boxes. A kit was provided, and the translation work was done by native-speaking Apple marketing staff in each country.
The largest Lisa customer was NASA, which used Lisa Project for project management and was eventually faced with significant problems when the Lisa was discontinued.
• 1979 The Lisa project begins
• 1980 Lisa project changes directions, including many features from Xerox Star
• 1982 Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project
• 1983 Lisa 1
• 1984 Lisa 2
• 1985 Macintosh XL
• 1986 the Lisa project was discontinued
• A lower cost that would be suitable for customers
• Ability to work with more available software applications
• Reliable and fast operating system