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Memory

Lesson 2
by

Jason Whetten

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of Memory

Memory Models
Information Processing
Encoding - Getting it in
Storage - Retaining it
Retrieval - Getting it back out
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Problems with Memory
What is your
DREAM
?
Memory.
Memory:
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Recall:
measure of memory - must retrieve information learned earlier

Recognition:
measure of memory - identification of previously learned information

Relearning:
measure of memory - assess amount of time saved when relearning previous known information

Atkinson - Shiffrin Model
Working Memory Model
Dual Track Mind
Draw a Penny
Explicit
Implicit
Sensory Memory
Iconic vs. Echoic
Visual
1/10s of a sec.
Auditory
3 - 4 sec.
Short Term/ Working Memory
FADES UNLESS WE ENCODE!
Ways to Encode:
Chunking
N-F
L-C-B
S-U-S
A-V-C
R-F-B
I
N-F-L
C-B-S
U-S-A
V-C-R
F-B-I
N-F
L-C-B
S-U-S
A-V-C
R-F-B
I
N-F-L
C-B-S
U-S-A
V-C-R
F-B-I
Mnemonics
Ways to Encode:
All Cows Eat Grass
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
Hierarchies
Ways to Encode:
Memory
Atkinson Shiffrin Model
Sensory - Working - Long Term
Iconic
Echoic
Encoding
Ways to Encode:
Distributed Practice
Spacing Effect
Testing Effect
Making Material Meaningful
Self-reference effect
Unlimited Capacity
BRAIN
LIBRARY
=
Explicit Memory - Hippocampus
Implicit Memory - Cerebellum/ Basal Ganglia
Emotional Memories - Amygdala
7 Dwarfs Activity
Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy, Smiley, Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy, Droopy, Dopey, Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy, Sneezy, Lazy, Pop, Grumpy, Bashful, Cheerful, Teach, Shorty, Nifty, Happy, Doc, Wheezy, and Stubby
Flashbulb Memories
Recall or Recognition
Retrieval Cues:
Priming
Mood Congruence
Context-Dependent
Serial Position Effect
Why do we forget?
Types of Amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
Source Amnesia
Déjà vu
• decreases with age and increases with education and income.
• is more common in persons who travel, remember their dreams, and have liberal political and religious beliefs.
• is most likely to be triggered by a general physical context, although spoken words alone sometimes produce the illusion.
• is experienced mainly when people are indoors, engaged in leisure activities or relaxing, and in the company of friends.
• is relatively brief—10 to 30 seconds—and is more frequent in the evening than in the morning, and on the weekend than on weekdays.
• is responded to more positively than negatively, with people typically indicating they are surprised, curious, or confused.

Storage
Failure
Memory Construction Errors
Misinformation Effect
Imagination Inflation
Memory Distortion
Did you remember the word Sleep?
Improving Memory
Rehearse repeatedly
Make the material meaningful
Activate retrieval cues
Use mnemonic devices
Minimize interference
Sleep more
Test your knowledge
Rajan Mahadevan - 31,811 digits of Pi
False Memories
Time, Space, & Frequency
SQ3R
Survey
Read through the headings
Question
Look at what questions you will answer
Try to answer the questions BEFORE you read
Read
Read only as much as you can absorb then take
a break
Retrieve

Use the retrieve it section to test yourself
Review
Review your notes to review the whole chapter

Other Examples?
What color is my waterbottle?
A. Red
B. Blue
C. Green
D. Clear
E. It changes
Explicit or Implicit?
Implicit Memory
Dora’s Dog Rufus loves to play fetch. One day while playing Dora accidentally throws a tennis ball into a large ant hill. Rufus picks up the ball and it bitten many times in his mouth by the ants. Now, Rufus refuses to play fetch with tennis balls or similar sized balls and will only play with larger soccer balls.
How would CC explain?
How would OC explain?

After Samuel's stroke he wakes up in the hospital unsure of his name and unable to recognize his wife. What type of amnesia could best explain this?
A. Source Amnesia
B. Anterograde Amnesia
C. Retrograde Amnesia
D. Hypergrade Amnesia
E. Hypograde Amnesia
Remembering the three types of sensory memory?
Implicit or Explicit?
What type of Explicit?
Remembering how to get to this class?
Excitation Transfer
Full transcript