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Ruchir Mundra

on 11 November 2014

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Ruchir Raghav Mundra
Class I hybrids: They are those in which the organic and inorganic components do not have any covalent or ionic bonds The interaction is limited to van der Waals force electrostatic interactions
Class II hybrids: These hybrid systems on the other hand have some amount of strong chemical bonding between the organic and the inorganic compounds in the form of covalent bond.
Types of Hybrid Materials
Classification of Materials at Different Scale Levels:
Many natural materials consist of inorganic and organic building blocks distributed on the nano scale. In most cases the inorganic part provides mechanical strength and an overall structure to the natural objects while the organic part delivers bonding between the inorganic building blocks and/or the soft tissue. Typical examples of such materials are bone, or nacre.
Hybrid materials in nature
What are Hybrid Materials?

Refers to any of a class of materials in which organic and inorganic components intimately mixed.

Nano Composites
Composites with a characteristic scale less than a micro-meter.
They have excellent properties when compared to macroscopic composites because of their fine micro structure or grain boundary effects.
They are a kind of structurally hybridized material because they have a nano meter scale structure of mixing.
They have an excellent properties based on the particular chemical-bonds at the interface between the component materials.
Advantages of hybrid materials over traditional composite:
1. Inorganic clusters or nanoparticles with specific optical, electronic or magnetic properties can be incorporated in organic polymer matrices.

2. Contrary to pure solid state inorganic materials that often require a high temperature treatment for their processing, hybrid materials show a more polymer-like handling, either because of their large organic content or because of the formation of cross-linked inorganic networks from small molecular precursors just like in polymerization reactions.

3. Light scattering in homogeneous hybrid material can be avoided and therefore optical transparency of the resulting hybrid materials and Nano composites can be achieved.
Advantages of hybrid materials:
1. Decorative coatings obtained by the embedding of organic dyes in hybrid coatings.
2. Scratch-resistant coatings with hydrophobic or anti-fogging properties.
3. Nano composite based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications including , gas sensors, light emitting diodes, photodiodes, solar cell and field effect transistors.
4. Fire retardant materials for construction industry.
5. Nano composite based dental filling materials.
6. Composite electrolyte materials for applications such as solid-state lithium batteries or superconductor.
7. Proton conducting membranes used in fuel cells
8. Antistatic / anti-reflection coatings
9. Corrosion protection
10. Porous hybrid materials
Well-defined preformed building blocks are applied that react with each other to form the final hybrid material .Different building blocks and approaches can be used for their preparation and these have to be adapted to bridge the differences of inorganic and organic materials.
Building blocks at least partially keep their molecular integrity throughout the material formation, which means that structural units that are present in these sources for materials formation can also be found in the final material. Cluster compounds often consist of at least one functional group that allows an interaction. Depending on the number of groups that can interact, these building blocks are able to modify or form partially or fully crosslinked materials (more than one group).
InSitu Formation
The in situ formation of the hybrid materials is based on the chemical transformation of the precursors used throughout materials’ preparation. In these cases well-defined discrete molecules are transformed to multidimensional structures, which often show totally different properties from the original precursors. Changing one parameter can often lead to two very different materials.
Hybrid materials by simultaneous formation of both components
Simultaneous formation of the inorganic and organic polymers can result in the most homogeneous type of interpenetrating networks. Usually the precursors for the sol–gel process are mixed with monomers for the organic polymerization and both processes are carried out at the same time with or without solvent. Applying this method, three processes are competing with each other:

(a) the kinetics of the hydrolysis and condensation forming the inorganic phase,
(b) the kinetics of the polymerization of the organic phase, and
(c) the thermodynamics of the phase separation between the two phases.
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