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Homophobia in Football
Transcript of Homophobia in Football
Understand homophobia as a form of deviancy in professional male football
Explain and evaluate measures to combat homophobia, specifically through the Rainbow Laces campaign
Structure of Presentation
Crime or Deviance?
Rainbow Laces Campaign
Homophobia as Deviance
"Deviance may be defined as any social behaviour or social characteristic that departs from the conventional norms and standards of a community or society"
(Beirne and Messerschmidt 1995, p.20)
Anderson, E. (2002) Openly gay athletes: Contesting hegemonic masculinity in a homophobic environment. Gender & Society. 16(6). p.860–877.
Anti-Homophobia Group Criticised by Campaigners
[Online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/football/24149109 [Accessed 1 May 2015].
Berg, T. (2013) US Soccer Player Rogers Retires [Online] http://www.usatoday.com/story/gameon/2013/02/15/robbie-rogers-retires-comes-out/1923165/. [Accessed 1 May 2015].
Brown, T. Sumner, K. and Nocera, R. (2002) Understanding Sexual Aggression Amongst Women: An Examination of the Role of Men's Athletic Participation and Related Variables,
Journal of Interpersonal Violence
. 17(9). p. 937-952.
Bush, A., Anderson, E., and Carr. S. (2012) The Declining Existence of Men’s Homophobia in British Sport.
Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education.
Connell, R.W. (2005)
2nd edn. London: Polity Press.
Connell, R. and Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept.
Gender and Society
. 19(6). p. 829-859.
Durkheim, E. (1958)
Professional Ethics and Civic Morals.
New York: Free Press.
[Online] http://www.theguardian.com/football/2014/jan/08/thomas-hitzlsperger-gay-footballer-interview [Accessed 1 May 2015].
The Justin Campaign.
Campaigning Against Homophobia in Football
[Online] http://www.thejustincampaign.com. [Accessed 1 May 2015].
[Online] http://lawcommission.justice.gov.uk/areas/hate_crime.htm [Accessed 1 May 2015].
O’Brien, M & Yar, M. (2008) Criminology: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.
[Online] http://www.stonewall.org.uk/what_we_do/campaign/rainbow_laces/default.asp [Accessed 1 May 2015].
Young, K. (2012)
Sport, Violence and Society.
Rainbow Laces Campaign
Homophobia in Professional Football
When? 13/14 September 2013
What? Wearing rainbow laces
Who? Stonewall and Paddy Power
Why? To kick homophobia out of football
Justin Fashanu's suidicide in 1998
Lack of openly gay male football players in the Premier League
Robbie Rogers and Thomas Hitzlsperger: The decision to address this issue publicly was a "hard, difficult one"
(The Guardian 2014)
Sustainability of the campaign
Still no openly gay players in Premier League
Arsenal FC's avid public support
Removing the stigma surrounding homosexuality in football
Initial success and recognition through social media
Company participation in the campaign
Homophobia as a type of deviancy in men's professional football
Details of the Rainbow Laces Campaign sponsored by PaddyPower
Evaluated the extent of the campaign's success
"A way of theorizing gendered power relations among men"
(Connell 2005, p.xvii)
(Brown et al 2002, p.938)
Hegemonic masculinities create a homophobic discourse
(Connell and Messerschmidt 2005, p.831)
"Homophobia presents itself within the sport as a form of resistance against a gay subculture"
(Anderson 2002, p. 861)
'Outline a form of crime or deviance in a specific sport and explain the measures in place (e.g policies, laws, or campaigns) to prevent, regulate or combat it.'
(Stonewall UK 2014)
Homophobia is a fear or intolerance of lesbian, gay, bi-sexual or transgendered (LGBT) persons
"Homophobia is based on the notion that homosexuality is "deviant" or immoral, and it supports prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and violence toward those identified"
(Coakley and Donnelly 2009, p.229)
Young's 18 forms of sport-related violence: #14 Identity Violence
(Young 2012, p.71)
Homophobia as a crime?
Definition of a crime: "behaviours that are formally prohibited and punishable under criminal law"
(O’Brien and Yar 2008, p.32)
Any crime can be defined as a hate crime "if the victim or anyone else believes it was motivated by hostility based on a personal characteristic of the victim."
(Law Commission 2014)
Personal characteristics include: (1) disability; (2) transgender identity; (3) race; (4) religion; and (5) sexual orientation
Criminal Justice Act 2003, s. 146