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Paediatric Medicine

Autism
by

Mark Laygan

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Paediatric Medicine

Paediatrics Medicine: Autism in Children Multi-disciplinary team Look at development from prenatal period through adolescence. Concerned about the child’s intellectual, behavioural, social and/or communication abilities.
Should be referred for assessment by Psychologist if the they are exhibiting unusual levels of fear, stress, anxiety, has difficulty socializing, is experiencing difficulties with learning, or is engaging in unusual behaviours. Psychologist: When necessary designing support programs that allow children to use their skills and strengths optimally Referred to if the child has difficulties with play, managing transitions, self-care or school work tasks such as concentrating and writing; or has sensory & co-ordination difficulties.
Very child & family focused.
Skilled in promoting child’s occupational performance, health, well-being modifying the environment to ensure improved performance. Occupational Therapist: Undertake child protection investigations, initial, core, foster and adoption assessments. Work together with the Psychologist to improve the quality of life for children and their family.
Help resolve issues/concerns through counseling and advice in relation to the social, emotional, behavioural & practical implications of a child’s diagnosis.
Help with hospital admissions, treatment requirements, or decision making options. Social Worker: Assess & give parents/carers advice regarding handling, positioning & treatment through play and/or exercise. Works with children from premature babies-18yrs to ensure optimal physical function & development.

Provide physical therapies to practice and become independent as well as to minimize the effects of physical impairment to promote optimum function and musculoskeletal development. Physiotherapists: Key role is to acknowledge & respond to developmental & behavioural concerns of the children as early as possible. Usually is the initial form of contact before being referred to other professionals.
Determine medical perspective of the situation.
Orders tests, analysis, build a diagnostic picture, determine a care plan or prescribe medications. Peadiatrician When a client is diagnosed with a condition that needs to be treated by more than one professional, they do an initial assessment called MAx to determine the clients needs and the therapies they offer together and how much therapy of each kind they need. Multi-Disciplinary Assessment (MAx) Help children with ASD to manage their anxiety levels.
Assist children throughout development. Use behavioural interventions to reduce undesirable behaviours and promote new desirable behaviours and skills.
Social skill development using behavioural strategies such as scripts, role-plays and social stories to improve interaction and communication skills.
Work with parents and carers to provide them with strategies to assist the child function better. What psychologists provide: Capacity for self-expression, to reason and problem solve.
Quality of child’s interactions with others.
Ability to cope with everyday situations. Emotional response to physical contact.
Response to his/her name.
Use of eye contact, gestures and facial expressions.
Evidence of unusual levels of fear, distress or anxiety.
Stereotypical or repetitive body movements or language.
Ability to communicate wants and needs.
Unusual or intense interest in topics. Areas psychologists look at: Therapies include alternative communication systems, vocabulary, syntax, social skills, use of visual aids, higher level language skills, receptive language and play skills. Referral is done when there are concerns about the child’s delayed onset or development of speech and language, regression or loss of communication skills and challenging behaviours resulting from them.
Assess joint attention, gestures, vocalization, echolalia, receptive language, initiation and play. Speech Pathologists: How it works: Paediatrician
Psychologist
Social Worker
Occupational Therapist
Physiotherapist
Speech Pathologist Paediatrician Other
professional
teams Individuals,
group
therapies
& assessments Research Findings of Relevant
Experiments and Studies... There are more studies with unknown effectiveness than beneficial studies.
Most of the effective interventions that could be found were based within a multidisciplinary programme.
There are no effective dietary interventions or studies.
There is only ONE effective but risky drug treatment.
No non-drug treatments available. What we found: Early Intensive Multidisciplinary
Intervention Programmes: Summary: Uses small class sizes of children from 3-5 years old. Classes include a lead special education teacher, two educational aides, an occupational therapist, a speech/language pathologist and music therapist. This high staff-to-child ratio is needed to ensure success in the learning environment.

Benefits: Improved social interaction compared to existing care alone. Autism Pre-School Programme Summary: Carried out in the early development
of autistic children. It is a scientific method of teaching where skills are broken down into the most basic components & positive performance
is praised and reinforced.

Benefits: Variable outcomes -> May result in improved IQ and/or improved adaptive behaviours. Early Intensive Behavioural Interventions: More Than Words: Summary: Workshop for parents with
autistic children. Trains parents so they
are able to become involved with their
child’s early language development.

Benefits: Improved communication outcomes. Parents also enjoy teaching their children
more after learning from this workshop. Picture Exchange Communication
System: Summary: Developed to teach young children to learn to initiate requests and communicate their needs using picture cards.

Benefits: Children with little speech are able to express their needs. TEACCH: Treatment & Education of Autism & related Communication handicapped Children Summary: Structured developmental teaching programme provides continuity in the
classroom setting. Parents are taught TEACCH methods and schooling.

Benefits: Improves educational scores when compared to usual care. Drug Treatments: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Summary: Given in low to high doses given three times daily.

Benefits: Reduced hyeractivity

Harms: 18% of children who either received the methylphenidate test dose or participated in the trial withdrew because of adverse effects, including reduced appetite, difficulty sleeping, abdominal discomfort, and irritability Summary: Benefits from multidisciplinary programs improve the communicative aspect in autistic children.

All available drug treatments available have adverse effects that can cause other health issues. Thanks for watching! Presentation by Stephanie, Archana & Tanya
Full transcript