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Transcript of Skywalk
The ever growing population of Mumbai is putting lots of pressure on the existing infrastructure especially on the transportation segment.
Mumbai's railway already has one of the highest passenger densities of any urban railway system in the world.
With almost 7 million passengers using the system daily, as well as the associated transport interchanges in their vicinity (bus stations, taxi stands, auto rickshaw stands, car parks, etc.) make the suburban railway stations the most congested areas of the city.
The problem is further aggravated by the presence of hawkers and parked vehicles, making the commute hazardous for pedestrians. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) conceived of the Skywalks in response to these problems in 2007.
Pedestrians entering and exiting Mumbai’s Railway stations face poor conditions and difficult challenges
Exposure to Risk
Crowded out from congested pavements, those on foot end up walking in the road perilously close to vehicles that are anxious and aggressive from being caught up in congestion themselves. At junctions, a lack of pedestrian signals leaves walkers darting out dangerously in front of traffic to seize opportunities for crossing.
Every trip begins and ends with walking, and walking is the primary mode of transport for 1 out of 3 trips in Mumbai. However, pedestrians are often literally pushed to the margins having no dedicated facilities for walking, crossing or waiting. This creates undignified conditions where pedestrians are relegated to scraps of space next to hazards or unpleasant conditions.
Crowding at the station exit makes it difficult for people to orient themselves and to move freely toward their destination. This is a cause of pedestrian delay and also increases the physical and psychological discomfort of walking.
The disorganization of activities (including vending and parking) and transfers to Intermediate Public Transit (autos and taxis) create a disorienting scene upon exiting the station. Confusion and erratic patterns of movement result, and this leads to delay and frustration for pedestrians.
Pedestrians prefer traveling in a relatively straight trajectory, rather than a weaving course around obstacles and hazards. As such, even where footpaths are provided use of these facilities tends to be nil since the pavements are insufficient for the volumes and further interrupted by breakages, open utility accesses, and even parked vehicles.
Need for skywalk
Traffic snarls are common in Mumbai and the rights of pedestrians is often breached by the vehicle owners and hawkers, who have encroached the footpath.
Mumbai stations such as Cst,Dadar, Bandra, Andheri, Borivali etc; are marked with congestion problem mainly near the station area.
The station area is marked with chaos as the commuters both entering and exiting the station premises make a beeline which the existing bridges and entry/exit points cannot handle.
Moving / parked vehicles outside the station and hawkers selling their wares add to this congestion and the ultimate result is lack of leg space for people to move.
Need for skywalk
Transport interchange activities, passenger transfer between trains, buses, taxies & Private vehicles make the station area most congested.
The problem aggravates with the road side hawking and vehicular parking.
Skywalks or the walkways are being built to facilitate the efficient dispersal of passengers from stations by providing dedicated space for pedestrian movement and by minimizing potential conflicts between people on foot and motorized vehicles in the streets.
The Sky walk is an elevated walk way dedicated to the pedestrians connecting the railway Station, high concentration commercial area and destination points where the concentration of pedestrians prevail.
Objectives of Skywalk Program
By constructing elevated walkways that create
dedicated space in the right-of-way for pedestrians and
that separate pedestrians from other traffic in the street,
the MMRDA aims to achieve the following objectives.
• Promote pedestrian accessibility by facilitating the dispersal
of commuters from suburban stations to key location
such as to shopping areas and to transfer points for
other modes (bus, autos, taxis).
• Enhance safety by providing safe and efficient pedestrian
• Improve circulation by reducing vehicular delay due to
• Relieve station area congestion by elevating walking activity
from the street and reducing conflicts between vehicles and
Site Selection Criteria
The following are the key transportation-related criteria
used to help identify locations for Skywalks.
• Pedestrian flow: stations with more than 6000 pedestrians
entering/exiting per hour at peak times were most favoured,
and those with less than 3000/hr were least favoured.
• Pedestrian impact: locations where the impact on the city of
pedestrians entering/exiting the station extended greater than
1km were most favoured, and areas where the impact was less
than 100m the least favoured.
• Vehicle Traffic: locations where skywalks would help pedestrians
cross wide and busy streets were favoured.
CHURCHGATE to CST
PROPOSED PLAN FOR SKYWALK
There are several routes from CST to Churchgate but they are either one way or very narrow for the construction of sky walk. But still there are three routes which are suitable for building the skywalk
We have selected
this path which
is as follows
It is the shortest path among three paths that are shown(i.e. 1.5 kms).Peoples always chose that path in which they have to travel less.
Pedistrian density is high on thie path while compared with other parts.
Roads are wider in this path which would help is building a skywalk.
Since it is situated in South Mumbai and connect two important stattion CST and Churchgate it can be center of attraction.
The entry and exit pont plays an imortant role in any skywalk.
So that maximum people can be benefited from the skywalk.
The various entry and exit point are as follows...
At canon shop near CST
Near Thomas cook .
At flora fountain .
At the junction of Ahilyabai Holkar Chowk.
At subway of Churchgate station
The important point should be kept in mind while designing skywalk is footfalls on that area or pedistrian density....
Which is the most important point for success of any skywalks...
The details of some of the skywalks that are present is as follows
Various challenges can be faced during initial development of project
Objection from local residents
Objection from the shopkeepers in the neighborhood
Restricted Road Width
Underground utilities such as water pipes, sewage pipe line, storm water drain, electric cables, telephone cables etc. encountered in foundations
Permission to be obtained from different departments of Municipal Corporations.
Permission to be obtained from Traffic
Police Department for diversion of traffic during construction
Condition Of Mumbai
Points to be kept In Mind
Under ground utilities and minimum number of structures affected
Available road widths
Proximity of adjacent buildings
No. of trees, large and small size, getting affected
Provision of shops on the sky walk, if any, on one side or both the sides or on upper deck with a view
o provide easy pedestrian movement
Speed of construction
Operation & maintenance, etc.
Planning of Skywalks !
OVERCOME SPECIFIC OBSTACLES TO PEDESTRIANS.
CONNECT PEDESTRIANS FROM POINT TO POINT
SEGREGATE PEDESTRIANS FROM VEHICLES
BE A SAFE & SECURE PASSAGE FOR PEDESTRIANS.
INDUCE PEDESTRIANS TO USE IT BY VALUE ADDITION SUCH AS COMFORT, LANDSCAPE, URBAN AMBIENCE,
Where would Skywalk be build?
This is a big question because Churchage and CST are the hub of Mumbai..
And daily routines of peoples cannot be distrubed much because it is a heritage and office place(people come here for enjoyment and there are many office located in this place)..
So the question lies where should we build a skywalk??
Where would Skywalk be build?
Since skywalk can not be build at the sideways of the road bcaz there are many tall structures are present in the whole path and since there are mainly corporative office and hosing societies, it would be infeasable to block their entry exit points..
But the most important reason is that in the sideways of roads there is a footpath present and there are many small number of places where ther are footpath is present.
So will it be benefaction if we destroy one walking space to building another..it will only create much more confussion and chaos within people.
Where would Skywalk be build?
So the only place left for building a skywalk is through the center of the road.
Since it is a two way road .
So skywalk can be build above the divider.
But this will have any effect?
It will affect the traffic.
So the possible solution is that widened of the road is done.
Which can only be done if we remove hawkers, stalls, and land encroachment done by the various people.
Which will create enough space by which skywalk can be build and traffic run smoothly.
Design Of Skywalk
It Consist mainly of two parts
Designing Of Pillars
Designing walking Structures
Some Design Of Pillars are shown
Designing Of Pilars
We choose this type of Fonundation Pillars structures.
Because of its sleek design(which covers minimum area on the ground).
Its is of uniqueness of design which will disturb traffic very less.
Designs of the structures are shown
We choose this type of design as shown in fig.
Because it is covered in the top (so the pedistrian can easily walk at the time of rain..
Since the sideways is open so the proper light is coming.
There we should place some plants (go-green)
and they will help us to eco friendly .
Width Of Skywalk
Since the pedistrian density is high in region near Churchgate and CST (approx. 5500-6500 in peak hours).
So according to design criteria that is discussed previously the width of skywalk should me of 4m wide.
So as to provide adequate proper space to all the pedistrians.
Estimated cost for Churchgate-CST skywalk:-
Length: 1500 meters.
Width: 4 meters.
Area: 6000 meters.
Estimated cost (in lakhs)= ₹2.3755 X 1500 = ₹3563.25
The estimated cost of Churcgate-C.S.T skywalk is calculated by estimating cost/ meter of each skywalk mentioned in table. Average of the cost is estimated and is multiplied by the length of Churchgate-CST skywalk length.
1. Length of Skywalk : 1500 M
2. Expected competion time : 18 months
3. Width of Skywalk : 4.0 M
4. No. Of staircase at location : 5
5. Estimated cost of Project : 35.6 crores
Benefits of Skywalk
• Focus on Higher Usage by Pedestrians.
• Higher usage allows for more Advertisement revenue.
• Total cost of ownership substantially lower.
• Speedy Construction and usage of Green
Technologies ensures high marks.
• Prevent Encroachment
• Facilitate Road widening in developed areas.
• Pedestrians get their due rights.
Benefits of Skywalk
Since in Churchgate and CST there are several offices are located in this region.
People choose various mode of transportation (taxi, bus) to travel to their destination.
Benefits Of Skywalk
On an average person spend in one way ride to reach their destination is:
Taxi - Rs 20 Bus - Rs 6
Since the pedestrian density is high in this region(6000 in peak hours)
Let suppose that on an average in one hours 400 peoples travel from taxi and 600 peoples travel from buses
So amount spend is 400*20 + 600*6 =11600 Rs
In one day amount spend is 11600*18=208800 Rs(excluding night hours )
In month : 208800*30=6264000 Rs
In one month people approx. spend 62.6 lakhs on travelling from churchgate and CST.
In this we have not included night hours when people less travel.
We have considered 1000 person travelling from bus and taxi but if the actual number is much more.
Then the amount spend could be greater than 1 crore in one month.
So of the considered population some peoples start using skywalk
Then we can save alteast Rs 25 lakh in a month.
Which would play a major role in success of skywalk
Alternate Usage of Skywalk
Trolleys: For carrying of goods
Walking and Jogging
Social Awareness Programs
How can revenue can be earned?
Since the skywalker is made for the convenience for the pedestrians , we can not have toll booths over it.
The effective way of earning money is to by advertisement boards.
By building small shops at skywalk.
Expectations of people from the skywalk
More Exit/Entry Points
Escalators, Elevators and Conveyer Belt
In the skywalk it is necessary there should proper lighting structure be there so that the commutators who are using in night will not face a problem.
Special lighting and led lights can be installed in the skywalk.
So in night in can enhance the beauty of that place and it can be viewed as a center of attraction.
There is a definite need for an alternative mode of transport to reduce the congestion. The skywalk is an excellent alternative for that. It has reduced the congestion and traffic at and near local station to some extent.
Skywalks are now landmarks, aesthetically pleasant and user friendly structures in Mumbai.
Building of skywalk from CST to Churchgate will provide an effective way for segregating pedestrian traffic from vehicular traffic and dispersal is hassle free, resulting in reduction of congestion outside Railway Stations, better Pedestrian safety, easier vehicular movements and Pedestrians got their due right.
By - Sunny Godhwani