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Faculty's Evolving Role in Higher Education
Transcript of Faculty's Evolving Role in Higher Education
in Higher Education 1999 to Present 1636 to 1776 The first Nine Colleges 1870 to 1944 Great changes for the scope of the faculty in higher education and the institution.
The creation of Faculty unions and the changes made to academics (degree specializations) affected the faculty stakeholder group.
The creation and founding of the AAUP would be crucial to the future of higher education and the representation of the faculty. 1945 to 1975 End of World War II
Civil Rights Movement
Vietnam War 1976 to 1998
Expansion of higher education gives faculty more power In 1916,the American Federation of Teachers was founded in Chicago to help faculty members have a voice. 1916 1919 January 1919 The University of Illinois becomes the second university to have a local AFT chapter (before then it was mostly K-12 schools. 1900 14 Universities come together to form the American Association of Universities. The association created unrest within the faculty communities who criticized the attempts to control academic freedom and institutional governance through this process 1870s After the Civil War, faculty personnel shifts from young clergyman to specialized professors due to the rapid growth in the need for information and knowledge revolving around industrialization 1876 The Founding of Johns Hopkins University in 1876 symbolized the shift from liberal arts education to a research based, doctoral program for which faculty members needed to have more expertise in their field. 1915 In 1900 when noted economist Edward Ross lost his job at Stanford University because Mrs. Leland Stanford didn't like his views on immigrant labor and railroad monopolies, other professors were watching. The incident stuck in the mind of Arthur O. Lovejoy, philosopher at Johns Hopkins. When he and John Dewey organized a meeting in 1915 to form an organization to ensure academic freedom for faculty members, the AAUP was born. "Academic freedom" was a new idea then. The AAUP set out in it's first year to settle all academic freedom disputes, starting with the University of Utah. The association developed a process during this time that is still crucial to investigations to this day. 1920-1944 After the formation of the AAUP, the organization would go after many controversial topics regarding their faculty members including:
- proper compensation
- women's rights
- governance from faculty With the union concept still in the infancy stages, conflicts arose that could not be handled and oftentimes local chapters would fold under certain circumstances. Additionally, many unions lacked clear purposes and failure to overcome faculty aversion. 1920s 1945-1949 1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1975 Cold War Vietnam War and Anti-War Movement Protest Rapid Expansion of Colleges and Universities Nine colleges were established in the U.S. from 1636 to 1776.
Harvard, William & Mary, Yale, Princeton, Penn, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth. "Colonial Colleges"
The faculty of these early colleges were largely clergymen.
The focus of the Colonial Colleges was on teaching, not research. It was generally not recognized until the opening of Johns Hopkins University in 1876.
There were two overarching themes of the Colonial Colleges.
Upheld Christian concepts
Taught the languages and literature of the Pagan Greeks and Romans
These two things would create problems later on for American Higher education but during this time period they did not conflict. Faculty worked closely with the president
"The president and his fellow teachers also prayed privately with errant students whose rooms they policed to check on their Bible reading, their personal devotions, and their behavior in general."
Toward the end of the Colonial Period, and after, students often reacted violently to the theocentric paternalism of their teachers. 1776 to 1869 Age of Exploration "An age that would require new educational institutions to serve new social needs, an age in which the insistent problem of existing educational institutions would be not whether they should adapt to change but, rather, how."
1776 - New inventions and the Declaration of Independence.
1779 - Columbia was the first institution to offer instruction in the French language.
1780 - American Academy of Arts and Sciences in Boston.
The French influenced other aspects of higher education until about 1820. Age of Rebellion within Higher Ed. Started at the end of the colonial period, rebellions for different reasons but a lot of them were because of the faculty.
Students hated that the faculty constantly snooped into their personal lives and drillmaster conception of teaching.
1823 marked a particularly rowdy year for Harvard and the faculty expelled 43 students out of a class of 70.
Some of the professors were there because they had failed at being preachers.
"almost every graduate of the period 1825-60 has left on record the detestation of the system of instruction." 1830's some aspiring faculty started attending formal institutions to prepare them for teaching.
1846 public funds budgeted to help instructors who were already employed in schools. Land-Grant College Act
Faculty were now supposed to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts along with scientific and classical studies. 1862 1830's & 40's 1820 - 1860 1776 - 1820 1636 - 1776 1980-1990 1976-1979 1991-1998 1999-2001 2002-2006 2007-Present 2000 2005 1990 1975 1985 1995 2010 1960 1969 1950 1945 1949 1959 1975 1970 Formation of AAUP Emergence of faculty unions during Industrialization Concept of academic freedom is born End of World War II GI Bill will fund veteran's higher education, causing a rise in student numbers and a demand for professors End of World War II: Higher student and faculty numbers caused strain on resources and curriculum. Faculty members in demand; shortage in every field of study.
The President’s Commission of Higher Education for Democracy: Focused on what higher education was lacking; reformed the undergraduate degree. Promoted academic freedom for the faculty’s method of instructions.
Change in the Method of Instruction: Faculty focus was on courses based on the needs of students. New lecture format was based off the student’s reading interpretations, since a better selection of curriculum materials were becoming available. Emergence of “true-false” and “multiple choice “testing. Education is changed to focus on a curriculum of courses designed to help the U.S. win the war Civil Rights Movement Brown vs. the Board of Education decision will integrate education Cold War Beginnings: Lacked emphasize on mathematics, science, engineering, and foreign language - curriculum would change.
McCarthy Years and the Red Scare: Many faculty members “blacklisted” and were never hired or rehired. Education was very censored; faculty had to be careful of any repercussions of their actions. Received no support from administration.
Brown versus the Board of Education: Begin integration of minority students, faculty. Most black college students continued to attend HBCUs. Faculty “place as much, or more, emphasis on teaching and student service oriented activities as on research. Many teachers at HBCUs have experience in working with minority students and students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds." Campuses across the U.S. will be in an unrest state as students protest the Vietnam War and draft selection process; academic freedom and the First Amendment prevail Campus Politics: Unrest on the campus by student strike/sit-in movements (protesting Vietnam War). Faculty were looked to reign in the students to bring the campus back to order. Important time for academic freedom, in the way of the First Amendment - faculty no longer were concerned about what they could teach. Campuses became more political - faculty divided themselves into three political groups, liberals, conservatives, and the middles.
Job Dissatisfaction: Institutional and faculty role conflict stemming from the political ideology. Administrations add to the faculty’s job duties with even more work and responsibility - they were to participate on more committees; in turn, the administration was promoting them to bigger role in shared governance. As the numbers of institutions increased, so did the demand for faculty. Rapid Expansion: Affirmative action programs, which were designed to ensure equal treatment of women and minority groups; wanted to achieve a better mix of students, faculty, and staff. As the numbers of institutions increased, so did the demand for faculty. Institutions also began employing an increasing number of faculty on a part-time basis.
Faculty Changes: Percentage of undergraduate degrees granted in business administration, health and related sciences, and communications degrees began to grow – in turn, faculty had to change their courses/curriculum to accommodate. Faculty’s role in the institutional governance continued to expand and they had control over the curriculum and degree requirements and would also have a strong interest and responsibility in the institutions budget. Recession of the 1970s Salary cuts and salary freezes
for faculty Economic prosperity
of the 1990s A survey of randomly sampled NEA leaders and members assessed faculty involvement in campus governance, reporting that faculty is “least involved in making campus budget decisions, setting the percentage of part-time and non-tenure faculty, and making decisions regarding merit pay and pay equity.” More than 78% of students attended public institutions, with more than half of first-time freshmen attending community colleges. Bowen and Schuster publish American Professors: A National Resource Imperiled after concluding a national study that observed the low morale of professors. Unions and the Faculty NEA publishes statement expressing its support of shared governance.
Faculty attempt to assert their power by unionizing but enjoy limited success 682 institutions were represented by academic unions AAUP’s “Statement on the Relationship of Faculty Governance to Academic Freedom” articulates the “right of a faculty member, without fear of reprisal or loss of influence, to criticize the administration and the governing board on matters of faculty concern.” Women represent 47% of assistant professors, 40% of associate professors, and 27% of full professors The AAUP's subcommittee on contingent faculty and governance released its preliminary recommendations for a new statement of principles concerning adjunct faculty and their role in shared governance. Expectations of Faculty Professors are widely expected to obtain research funding and be published Increased Accountability Gave power over the institution and the faculty to academic administrators. Growth of Institutions Elected senates and “more bureaucratic governance arrangements” have replaced
the “traditional general faculty meeting” Time and U.S. News and World
Report described higher education
as a “buyer’s market.” Since 1910, faculty salaries had been dropping dramatically (53.8%) over the last five years. AAUP set up an investigation at five separate institutions to look into the matter. This is an especially important event. Illinois was one of the schools that were originally in the AAU. It took 19 years and World War I's conclusion for the faculty to take a stand- creating local chapter 21 for themselves. Faculty Are Not Just Educators