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Communications Group

on 22 February 2013

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Very often a change of self is needed more than a change of scene.
-A.C. Benson Perceiving Others Communication and Identity Management Chapter 3: The self, perception, and Communication Communication and the Self Public and Private Selves
Characteristics of Identity Management
Why Manage Identities? How Do We Manage Identities? By: Anna Bureacova, Kelsey Holm, Rozell Kirk, Savannah Hernandez & Ty Kreshchuk. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Steps in the Perception Process
Empathy and Perception Identity Management and Honesty
Identity Management in mediated channels
Perception in mediated communication Narratives, Perception, and Communication
Common Perceptual Tendencies
Perception and Culture We all have our story of the world, and often our story is quite different from others. Narratives a stories that we and others create to make sense of the personal world. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Occurs when a person's expectations of an outcome, and subsequent behavior, makes the outcome likely to occur than would otherwise have been true. The first type of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy is shaped from our own expectations influencing our behavior. The second type occurs when one person's expectations govern another's actions. The steps of perception include:
-Interpretation Selection: The perception act of attending to some stimuli in the environment and ignoring others. We select:
*Contrast or Change
*Internal Factors
*Emotional State Interpersonal Communication and understanding of info. we receive. Judgment, negative & first impressions, and how
we assume facts about ourselves and others. Different minds of cultures. Organization: We must arrange it in some meaningful way in order to make sense of the world. *Perception Schema
*Physical Constructs
*Role Constructs
*Interaction Constructs
*Psychological Constructs Interpretation: Plays a role in virtually every type of communication. Major Influences Of Interpretation
*Degree of involvement
*Relational satisfaction
*Personal experience

Other Influences
*Assumptions about human behavior
*Knowledge of others
*Expectations Empathy: Is the ability to re-create another person's perspective, to experience the world from the other's point of view. There are three dimension that allow us to experience feelings.

*Perspective talking
*Emotional understanding
*Concern Sympathy: feeling compassion for another person's perspective. Private Selves Public Selves
(Presenting Selves) The way we want
to be seen. Socially accepted.
Ex: Loving partner, loyal friend, good citizen,
hard worker, the list goes on and on. The perceived self. •Self concept.
•Elements of yourself that you might
not often share with other people. This includes feelings about your appearance, goals, intelligence, or motives. Ex:
"I don't think I'm pretty."
"I just want to get rich."
"I'm not as smart as I wish I was."
"I only care about myself." We have multiple identities.

This can differ in many ways. Self-Concept Defined
Communication and Development of the Self
Culture and the Self-Concept
The Self-Concept and Communication with others The self concept is a set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us hold about our selves. •Moods or feelings
•Intellectual capacity
•Social roles
•Etc. Self esteem is defined as our evaluations of self worth.
(It's what we think about ourselves.) The relationship
between self-concept and behavior. Others Responses Perceptions of Events Behavior Communication
style. • Nervous
• Etc. • Stuttering
• Enunciating
• Blushing
• Etc. • Disapproval
• Cooperation
• Indifference
• Etc. "I did a great job on that!"

"They must have though I was
an imbecile." Reflected Appraisal:
Term used to metaphorically describe how we develop an image of ourselves from the way we think others view us. "The self is essentially a social project arising out of experience with people... We learn the most significant and fundamental facts about ourselves from... Reflected appraisals, inferences about ourselves made as a consequence of the ways we perceive others behaving towards us." How do you view yourselves as a person? Being able to change identities
shows communication competence. Identity management can be conscious or unconscious.

First dates
Job interviews People differ on their levels of identity management.

High self-monitors

Low self-monitors Can create the impression they want.
Can handle social operations smoothly, and put others at ease. Slightly predictable
Easy to read
Not so smooth. That includes the good and bad: Bro
- Ladies man
- Freelance writer
- Collector of comic books
- Hates pickles Winston - Harvard graduate
- Vegetarian
- Optimist
- Enjoys playing harmonica Lewis "The nail that sticks out gets hammered down." - Japanese Proverb
"Society exists only as a mental concept; in the real world there are only individuals."
-Oscar Wilde Personality Personality: A relatively consistent set of traits each of us exhibits across a variety of situations. "One survey has revealed almost 18,000 trait words in the English language that can be used to describe personality." Managing Our Identities Social rules govern our behavior in a variety of settings.

When you get a job, you're signing an unwritten contract that says that you'll present yourself in a certain way at work, one that is socially acceptable. As a salesman, you're expected to be courteous. “Identity management is key to ensure trust, [privacy and security] as well as to facilitate collaboration and improve analytics.” - William Crowell Managing identities does not necessarily make you a liar! "Foggy mirror effect" People lie about their academic achievements.
Ex. On their resumes.
Ex. Phone interviews
Salesman lies to a customer to sell a certain product.
Ex. Craigslist "Sellers" When chatting/texting, can't observe other person's postures, gestures, or facial expressions. If you can't see the person that you are talking to, it might cause misunderstanding, conflict, or in a worst case a fight. You got a text from
this person saying,"haha".
Did I really make him
smile or he said it not
to make me feel bad? So the resolution is? Skype, Snapchat, ooVoo You can see the actual SMILE! or happy eyes... Despite the apparent barriers to accurate perception in mediated channels(i.e. Facebook) people can form accurate impressions of one another over mediated channels, tho not the same way as they will communicate in person. So what kind of impressions can you form by looking at messages from somebody you have never seen before.? Some things you can form impressions from:
Writing style
Spelling errors
Quick replies vs. Long delay replies
"k" texts
Use of smileys. Attribution the process of attaching meaning to behavior. ATTENTION! HERE ARE SEVERAL PERCEPTUAL ERRORS THAT CAN LEAD TO INACCURATE ATTRIBUTIONS - AND TO TROUBLESOME COMMUNICATION. We make snap Judgments Snap judgement becomes particularly problematic when they are based on stereotyping. Stereotyping exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorized system. Three characteristics destinguish stereotypes from reasonable generalization:
Categorizing others on the basis of easily recognized but not necessarily significant characteristics. Ascribing a set of characteristics to most or all members of a group.
Applying the generalization to a particular person. We often judge ourselves more charitably that we judge others. We pay more attention to negative impressions than positive ones. We are influenced by What Is Most Obvious. We cling to first impressions, even if wrong. We tend to Assume that others are similar to us. Most of us do the self-serving bias almost every day. Self-serving bias. to convince ourselves and others that the positive face we show to the world is true, we tend to judge ourselves in the most generous terms possible. 60% rate themselves in top 10 % of the population
amazing 25% believed they were in the top 1%
70% of men ranked their leadership in the top 25%. (where 2% thought that they are below the average)
60% said that they are in athletic abilities; and 6% below average. What do you think about Boby? Research shows that people are aware of both negative and positive trains of another, they tend to be more influenced by negative trains. Our mind can be influenced by many factors. Such as Army, music, movies, fashion, commercials. We pay attention to stimuli that are intense, repetitious or contrastive. The power of first impression is important in personal relationships. You never get a second chance to get a first impression. We can offer is to keep an open mind and be willing to change your opinion as events prove that the first impressions were mistaken. Don't assume that your first judgement of a person is accurate. Sometimes others don't always think or feel the way we do. Those issues can led to problems in relationships. Studies has shown that men evaluate women who initiate first dates as being more interested in sex than do the women who initiated the dates. Different cultures act differently. The power of culture influence perception. VS. People from different cultures always deal with their ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism the attitude that one's own culture is superior to others.
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