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Transcript of Biochemistry
Types of Bonds:
Covalent: electrons are shared by two atoms
Nonpolar: electrons are shared equally and have same electronegativity (tendency to attract electrons in a bond)
Polar: one atom has greater electronegativity and there is an unequal sharing of electrons (distribution of charge)
Ionic: two atoms attract valence electrons
Chapter 2 Hydrogen Bonds: weak that form between positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule and negative oxygen of another molecule
Van de Waals: very weak; result of distribution of electrons within a molecule; contribute to 3D shapes of large molecules
Water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O)
Water Molecules are polar, meaning the oxygen end has a slightly negative charge, and the hydrogen end would have a slightly positive end
Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules.
Water can form up to four hydrogen bonds at a time
Cohesion- Linkage of like molecules (Water bonds to water)
Adhesion- clinging of one substance to another
Transpiration- Evaporation of water through stomata's in leaves
High Specific Heat- Amount of heat required to raise or lower temperature by 1 degree Celsius.
High specific heat of water keeps temperature of the oceans livable.
Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice-
Frozen water is less dense than its liquid state, causing it to float.
Water is a universal solvent-
Hydrophilic substances are water-soluble.
Hydrophobic substances are non water-soluble.
Acids- excess H+ ions and pH below 7.0
Bases- excess OH- ions and pH above 7.0
Four emergent properties of water: