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Child Abuse/Neglect 2012

Statistical Analysis of Child Welfare in Midwest, USA

Denice Mock

on 13 July 2017

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Transcript of Child Abuse/Neglect 2012

In order to optimally care for a child the caregiver must be
Effective Problem Solving and Communication Skills
Good Enough Parenting
Risk Factors for Child Abuse/Neglect
Premature birth
Child Risk Factors
Parental Risk Factors
Low tolerance for frustration
Single parent with lack of support, high number of children in household
Social/Environmental Risk Factors
Low socioeconomic status
Social isolation/lack of social support
Types of Abuse/Neglect
Protective Factors
Protective factors are conditions in families and communities that, when present,
Increase the health and well-being of children and families
They are attributes that serve as buffers, to find resources, supports, or coping strategies that allow them to parent effectively, even under stress.
Parental Resilience
Friends, family members, neighbors and others who offer and provide emotional support and assistance to parents.
Financial security to cover expected and unexpected daily costs, formal supports (i.e. TANF, Medicaid) and informal support from social networks.
The importance of early bonding, as well as nurturing throughout childhood. Building a close bond helps parents better understand, respond to, and communicate with their children.
The ability to cope with and recover from all types of challenges.
Accurate information about raising young children, appropriate expectations for their behavior, and knowledge of alternative discipline techniques.
Healthy Social and Emotional Development of Children
Healthy (Marriages) Relationships
A child’s ability to interact positively with others and communicate his or her emotions effectively.
Nurturing and Attachment
Knowledge of Parenting and Child Development
Social Connections
A parent, caregiver or family’s ability to identify their goals, consider challenges, set realistic approaches to overcome challenges, and communicate effectively with others to reach their goals.
Concrete Support in Times of Need
Developing and sustaining relationships with diminished levels of conflict and other attributes such as affectionate parents, high self-esteem, or a role model that helps children and youth to achieve positive outcomes.
Being Strong and Flexible
Social Connections
Knowledge of Parenting and Child Development
Social Emotional Competence of Children
Concrete Support in Times of Need
Healthy Parent Child Relationship
Insert Your Hand Here
Able to respond adequately once something unhealthy has been identified
Able to identify unhealthy aspects of the environment
Aware of how to provide a healthy environment
Child aggression, behavior problems, attention deficits
Childhood trauma
Parental unemployment; homelessness
Lack of access to medical care, health insurance, adequate child care, and social services
Stressful life events
Community violence
Dangerous/violent neighborhood
Exposure to environmental toxins
Poor schools
Exposure to racism/discrimination
Consequences of Child Abuse
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2011). Child Maltreatment 2010. Available from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can

United States Government Accountability Office, 2011. Child maltreatment: strengthening national data on child fatalities could aid in prevention (GAO-11-599). Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11599.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families Children’s Bureau.Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2009: Statistics and Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/fatality.pdf

Snyder, Howard, N. (2000, July). Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement: victim, incident, and offender characteristics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf

Long - Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm

Fang, X., et al. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect (2012), doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.006 Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213411003140

Harlow, C. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. (1999).Prior abuse reported by inmates and probationers (NCJ 172879) Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/parip.pdf

Parental substance abuse. Retrieved from http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/factors/parentcaregiver/substance.cfm

National Council on Child Abuse and Family Violence. Parental Substance Abuse A Major Factor In Child Abuse And Neglect. Retrieved from http://www.nccafv.org/parentalsubstanceabuse.htm
Swan, N. (1998).

Exploring the role of child abuse on later drug abuse: Researchers face broad gaps in information. NIDA Notes, 13(2). Retrieved from the National Institute on Drug Abuse website: www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol13N2/exploring.html
Of those who abused and neglected children
More than
80 percent
(81.2%) of
duplicate perpetrators
of child maltreatment were
A nationally estimated 1,560 children (compared with 1,750 children for FFY 2009) died from abuse and neglect in FFY 2010.
SIGNS OF PHYSICAL ABUSEConsider the possibility of physical abuse when the child:•Has unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken bones, or black eyes; •Has fading bruises or other marks noticeable after an absence from school; •Seems frightened of the parents and protests or cries when it is time to go home fromschool; •Shrinks at the approach of adults; or •Reports injury by a parent or another adult caregiver.Consider the possibility of physical abuse when the parent or other adult caregiver:•Offers conflicting, unconvincing, or no explanation for the child's injury; •Describes the child as "evil," or in some other very negative way; •Uses harsh physical discipline with the child; or •Has a history of abuse as a child.
SIGNS OF NEGLECTConsider the possibility of neglect when the child:•Is frequently absent from school; •Begs or steals food or money from classmates; •Lacks needed medical or dental care, immunizations, or glasses; •Is consistently dirty and has severe body odor; •Lacks sufficient clothing for the weather; •Abuses alcohol or other drugs; or •States there is no one at home to provide care.Consider the possibility of neglect when the parent or other adult caregiver:•Appears to be indifferent to the child; •Seems apathetic or depressed; •Behaves irrationally or in a bizarre manner; or •Is abusing alcohol or other drugs.
SIGNS OF SEXUAL ABUSEConsider the possibility of sexual abuse when the child:•Has difficulty walking or sitting; •Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to participate in physical activities; •Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual sexual knowledge or behavior; •Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease, particularly if under age fourteen; •Runs away; or •Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult caregiver.Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the parent or other adult caregiver:•Is unduly protective of the child, severely limits the child's contact with other children, especially of the opposite sex;•Is secretive and isolated; or •Describes marital difficulties involving family power struggles or sexual relations.
SIGNS OF EMOTIONAL MALTREATMENTConsider the possibility of emotional maltreatment when the child:•Shows extremes in behavior, such as overly compliant or demanding behavior, extreme passivity or aggression;•Is either inappropriately adult (parenting other children, for example) or inappropriately infantile (frequently rocking or head-banging, for example);•Is delayed in physical or emotional development; •Has attempted suicide; or •Reports a lack of attachment to the parent.Consider the possibility of emotional maltreatment when the parent or other adult caregiver:•Constantly blames, belittles, or berates the child; •Is unconcerned about the child and refuses to consider offers of help for the child's schoolproblems; or •Overtly rejects the child.
The behavior of children may signal abuse or neglect long before any change in physical appearance. Some of the signs may include:
Nervousness around adults
Aggression toward adults or other children
Inability to stay awake or to concentrate for extended periods
Sudden, dramatic changes in personality or activities
Unnatural interest in sex
Frequent or unexplained bruises or injuries
Low self-esteem
Poor hygiene
Signs of Abuse/NEglect
Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation
Physical Abuse




of any child to engage in, or assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct

or simulation of such conduct for the purpose of producing a visual depiction of such conduct;
Difficult to prove without evidence of harm
the parent has failed to provide
reasonable support
for a specified period of time.
Use of a controlled substance by a caregiver
Victim Relationship to Perpetrator
Perpetrator By Race
Parental Type
Injury as a result of a caregiver or parent, or another person responsible for the care of a child inflicting harm.
These injuries are considered abuse
of whether the caregiver intended to hurt the child.
hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object)
Physical discipline, such as spanking or paddling, is
not considered abuse
as long as it is
causes no bodily injury
to the child.
Substance Abuse
Circumstances that are considered abuse or neglect in some States include:
Prenatal Exposure
Manufacture of methamphetamine

illegal drugs or alcohol to a child
non-accidental physical injury
(ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death).
Emotional/Psychological Abuse
pattern of behavior
that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self- worth.
withholding love
withholding support
withholding guidance
Emotional/Psychological Abuse
Almost always present
Physical Abuse
Activities by a parent or caregiver such as:
fondling a child’s genitals
indecent exposure
through prostitution
Sexual Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003
Defining Child Abuse and Neglect
An act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.
At a Minimum:
A child is considered to be abandoned when:
Abandonment is now defined in many States as a form of neglect.
the parent’s identity or
the child has been
left alone
in circumstances where the child suffers serious harm
the parent has
to maintain
with the child
*Exception Safe Haven Laws
Neglect is the failure of a parent, guardian, or other caregiver to provide for a child’s
basic needs.
food or shelter, or lack of appropriate
medical or mental health
a child or attend to
special education
psychological care, or
permitting use
of alcohol/drugs
Ages of Child Abuse/Neglect VICTIMS
Perpetrators Types
were the
biological parent
of the victim.
By Perpetrator
By Race and Ethnicity
By Child Sex
By Maltreatment Type
By the Rate of Deaths
By the Numbers
Several States that reported fewer child fatalities for FFY 2010
The national fatality rate per 100,000 children in the population was
for FFY 2010 compared with a national fatality rate of
for FFY 2009.
Successful prevention programs
Declines in Fatalities Rates from FFY 2009-2010
The child's
between the victim and abuser
Not all
abused and neglected children will experience long-term consequences.
of abuse
of abuse
Maintenance of child welfare system
judicial system
law enforcement
health system
mental health system
Direct Cost
Long Term Cost
juvenile and adult criminal activity
mental illness
substance abuse
domestic violence
loss of productivity
special education
health care
mental health
Difficulties in Adolescence
25% more likely
teen pregnancy
low academic achievement
risky sexual behavior
drug use
Approximately one-third of abused and neglected children will eventually victimize their own children
Juvenile delinquency and adult criminality
11 times more likely to be arrested for criminal behavior as a juvenile
2.7 times more likely to be arrested for violent and criminal behavior as an adult
3.1 times more likely to be arrested for a violent crime
Alcohol & drug use
As many as two-thirds of people in drug treatment programs reported being abused as children
Abusive behavior
Depression and withdrawal
Poor mental/emotional health
As many as 80% of young adults who had been abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder
cognitive capacity
Cognitive difficulties
Social difficulties
antisocial traits
borderline personality disorders
violent behavior
Impaired brain development
Poor physical health
high blood pressure
Victimization Rates
Perpetrator by Sex
Statistics for Maltreatment Types
Victims by Race and Ethnicity
Defined by
Or, the
and in cases of caretaker or inter-familial relationships,
statutory rape

or other form of
sexual exploitation
of children, or
with children.”
Victims & Perpetrator by Sex
physical disability
Feelings of insecurity
Personality Factors
External locus of control
Poor impulse control
High parental conflict
Childhood history
Insecure attachment
Lack of trust
Substance abuse
Parental psychopathology
Social isolation
Unreasonable expectations of child
Poor parent-child interaction, negative attitudes and attributions about child 's behavior
High general stress level
language development
academic achievement
production of pornographic materials
chronic or serious illness
emotional disability
cognitive disability
birth anomalies
low birth weight
exposure to toxins in utero
Family Risk Factors
By Age of Child
It is estimated that between
of child fatalities due to maltreatment are
not recorded
as such on death certificates
Witness to violence
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