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Transcript of cambio climatico
Settlements Energy / Industry Resource-Dependent Settlements Riverine, Coastal, and Steeplands Settlements- Impacts on Infrastructure Urban settlements Migration Water pollution Africa Latin
America Europe North
America Asia Agricultural and fisheries settlements and related industry Agroindustry is one of the most adaptable industries It depends on sources such as climate, water and soil but also it highly depends on economic systems because of globalization. Autonomous adaptation Fisheries El niño affects ocean temperature and available ocean species. Agriculture Tourism and recreation Changes in precipitation patterns
Increase in water level Flooding and Sea level rising impacts them in a large scale. Rapid snowmelt has a potential threat in heavy settled snow-fed river systems (Rhine in Europe Urbanization is an important factor in flooding, hence less sophisticated and bad designed mechanisms of drainage result in overwhelming its capacity of water management.
Also higher sea levels are expected to reduce size of coastal fresh water aquifers
Less drinkable water
Impact in agriculture IPCC concluded in 2007 that humans are affecting the climate and making it worse than it has been before. Latin america has faced a lot of weather problems and acording to the IPCC there have been increases in extreme climatic events. Predicted changes:
• Reducing water availability and hydropower generation
• Increasing desertification and aridity
• Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas
• Increasing crop’s pests and diseases During the last decades important changes in precipitation and increases in temperatures were observed. Ranges from 1 to 4° C or 2° to 6°. Wilma Increased el niño ocurrences. Landslides result of intense precipitation Tropical forests in amazonia are more susceptible to fire because of El niño and deforestation. How much does a community can be affected by the lack/increase of local available resources? Sentinel Island (Indic Ocean Primary source: ocean/fishes/trees) Peruvian Reserves for isolated tribes Cities = Supermarkets = Almost limitless resources Climate changes…
Animal population decreases/increases
Human Settlements have to adapt to this changes, also they can expand or contract because of this changes
Supply and Offer Law changes market conditions IF... Arid and semi-arid regions Main problems Water and food lack
Low Income$$ Comunication Primary food supplies Cattle / Agriculture Primary Water suplies What to do against heat excess & winds? Few Water Supply = Higher costs for water Oasis
Underground water “Quote” Small settlements in arid/semi-arid regions occasionally confront a higher risk of damage by flooding than their counterparts in more humid environments. This is usually because of the longer return periods or rarity of extreme rainfall. However, in a warmer world the frequency of these intense storms in semi-arid and arid regions may increase (Smith, 1996; Smith and Handmer, 1996; Smith et al., 1999). From http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?src=/climate/ipcc_tar/wg2/310.htm#72211 Energy Supply and Demand
Construction Transportation Polar and subpolar settlements Manufacturing Financial Services and Insurance Main regions ARTIC and ANTARTIC Main problems Temperature
Communication The more traditional settlements are economically vulnerable to changes in the regional ecology that might occur as a result of climate change (changes in sea ice, migration routes, or abundance of game species). Cohen, 1997, from http://www.grida.no Fishing, seal and whale hunting
Temperature changes in water may lead into biodiversity changes Primary food supplies What to do angainst cold excess & winds? ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND THREE GORGES DAM - CHINA Forest settlements ITAIPU – BRAZIL/PARAGUAY ITAIPU – BRAZIL/PARAGUAY
“Amazon River” Main problems GRAND COULEE - US Agriculture
Few cattle raise Primary food supplies CHICOASÉN DAM - MEXICO if it keeps on raining the levee's going to break… Rivers Primary Water suplies “under climate change the traditional forest communities would face the additional challenge of changed ecology, which could change the availability of key species and adversely affect the sustainability of these communities.” from http://www.grida.no Big Continent with a variety of climates and boidiversity (due to the big latitude-longitude location)
From Monsoon areas to Permafrost or Drylands Ocean dependant
Few land for agriculture or livestock raising
Weather issues (Typhoon-Tsunami) Example Japan Transportation
Construction Continental Free Trade Increased drought in the U.S. Great Plains/Canadian Prairies Fewer periods of extreme winter cold Investments in adaptive infrastructure Variety of climates: Cold,Humid, Mediterranean, Permafrost…
The adaptation to climate changes is relatively easy because of the stable economy and solid political system. Permafrost will decline due to temeperature rise