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Dealing with global challenges

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axel Ceunen

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Dealing with global challenges

Dealing with global challenges:
Poverty

Definitions
Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of getting choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation
Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services
necessary for survival with dignity
. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and
opportunity to better one’s life
“Being unwanted, unloved, uncared for, forgotten by everybody, I think that is a much greater hunger, a much greater poverty than the person who has nothing to eat.”

Mother Theresa
Absolute and Relative
Poverty

Absolute
Relative
Absolute Poverty

Poverty in relation to the amount of money to meet basic needs
Relative Poverty
Inadequate lack of income when compared yo the average standards living
Relative: cultural environment
Absolute: services
Why is it a global challenge ?
Map of World Poverty by country
1,2 Billion people in extreme poverty
Globalization
Europe

24% are at risk
Causes
Major causes of poverty
1. IMF (=International Monetary Fund) and the World bank
• Poor countries dept repayment
• Require to reduce spending on health, education and development
• Dept repayment and economic policies = priority

2. IMF preconditions to receive money
• Pour countries must export more
• Price war on global market
• Resources become even cheaper
• Governments need to increase exports

Acute Causes
• Warefare => drop of average income
• Agriculture cycles => periods of scarcity
• Natural disasters
• Droughts and flooding

Corruption
• Leaders are not accountable to those they serve
• Leaders help themselves to money
• Providing service to their followers

Social
“To seek "causes" of poverty in this way is to enter an intellectual dead end because poverty has no causes. Only prosperity has causes.”
― Jane Jacobs (writer)

Effects of poverty
Solutions for poverty
Child poverty
Children more at risk
One child in four
Determinants of child poverty
Household
Lone-parent
Large families
Labour market of parents
joblessness
in-work poverty
Are poor children tomorrow's
poor parents?
Key determinant: educational level parents
Current income situation
Future situation
Stimulation environment influences development
define limits/capabilities
Generational cycle of poverty
Opinions
Social work
Biomedical

• different genders, races, ethnic groups, and social classes
• placing individuals in different social categories at birth

Crime
• Geographically concentrated
• Specific areas
• Uneducated adults and kids
• Unemployment
• Chronic poverty
• 2 choices:
- take part in crime
- legal way out


Social poverty
• Vicious cycles
• Child labor
• Lack of hygiene
• Alcohol and abuse
• …

Health
• Mental and physical
• Poor live shorter
• Easy spread of diseases
• Stress
• Low self esteem

Discrimination
• Mental health
• Behavior

Employment programs and training
Funding poverty fighting
programs
Transparency in government
spending
Canceling the repay of world debts
Prioritizing human rights programs
Taxing the rich more and the poor less
Building self- sufficient economies
Education
Involvement of the media
Microfinancing
Empowerment

Self-strength - control - self-power - fight for right - independence - own decision making - being free - capability - ...

=
"The process of enhancing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes."

Assets & capabilities
Individual
Collective
Remove barriers
Agents of economic growth

RIGHT + ABILITY
TO MAKE OWN DECISIONS!
Example: Nepal - The story of Purnina
PLC: Participatory Learning Centres
Issues like health, education, forestry, income, rigths + action
Full transcript