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A short history and guidelines for current usage

Chris White

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of Commas

to walk Commas , we need punctuation... ...to have a reliable way to communicate how many ways
do you use written language
for communication? what happens
when commas
are not used
consistently Goat cheese salad:
lettus, tomato, goat, cheese Eats, Shoots, & Leaves A panda walks into a cafe. He orders a sandwhich, eats it, then draws a gun and fires two shots in the air.

"Why?" asks the confused waiter, as the panda makes towards the exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder.

"I'm a panda," he says at the door. "Look it up."

The waiter turns to the relevant entry and, sure enough, finds an explanation.

"Panda: Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China. Eats, shoots and leaves." punctuation is like... musical notation that directs musicians how to play stitching that holds the text together without it,
words get jumbled without it,
language falls apart road signs without them,
words run into each other the history of punctuation first used in Greek plays
around 200 B.C. told actors when to breath,
how long the next section would be commas were for short sections to signify a pause for the actor and now... for the reader
(to understand ideas in chunks) commas make your writing more clear most ancient texts (including the Bible)
didn't have punctuation pause in the wrong place and the sense of the text can sometimes change in significant ways! Consider Luke 23.48: Verily, I say unto thee, This day thou shalt be with me in Paradise.


Verily I say unto thee this day, Thou shalt be with me in Paradise. commas started as marks for speaking and hearing and are now more for
reading and understanding Bad men live that they can eat and drink / but good men eat and drink that they may live Bad men live that they can eat and drink, but good men eat and drink that they may live commas are for organizing 1. In a list 2. For dialogue 4. Dependent Clauses Using them correctly adds clarity.
Usually, this will make your writing more effective-
more likely to get you what you want. I hate meatloaf, soggy fried chicken, salisbury steak, and tuna surprise. The boy across from me said, "I'll trade ya my tuna surprise for a pudding cup straight up." The comma is a scary grammatical sheepdog: it tears about on the hillside of language, endlessly organizing words into sensible groups and making them stay put: sorting and dividing, circling and herding, and of course darting off with a peremtive woof to round up any wayward subordinate clause that makes a futile bolt for semantic freedom. But commas, if you don't whistle at them to calm down, are unstoppably enthusiastic at this job. The different between... Panda. Eats shoots and leaves. Panda. Eats, shoots, and leaves. 3. To connect sentences with a conjunction I would normally have been up for the trade, but I wasn't in the mood to be surprised. Let's eat grandpa.
Let's eat, grandpa. correct punctuation
can save a person's life / , To separate 3 or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series I like cooking, soccer, and writing. The pencil can go in the cup, out of the cup, and under the cup. Today I will give you the spelling test, we will go to the lab, and you will print your essays. The Oxford comma:
the last comma in the list
sometimes left out in US
always used in UK
my tip -- when in doubt, use it I like cooking, soccer and writing. 1.a. Listing Adjectives Use commas to separate adjectives of equal rank (or, adjectives that can be listed in any order). The "and" test:
if "and" can be placed in between the adj., you should use a comma

if you can't place "and" between them, you don't need a comma Flavorful, spicy soups are common in Chinese cuisine. Several different spices are used to make a Chinese soup. Don't use commas to separate adjectives that must stay in the same order. Bellringer 1. He was a difficult stubborn child.
2. They lived in a white frame house.
3. She often wore a gray wool shall.
4. Your cousin has an easy happy smile.
5. The relentless powerful summer sun beat down on them.
6. The relentless powerful oppressive sun beat down on them. ask yourself:
1. Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written in a different order?
2. Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written with "and" between them?
If yes on either one, the adjectives should be separated by commas Rules:
Introductory: use a comma after an ID tag that comes before the quotation

Interrupting: use a comma before and after an ID tag that comes in the middle of the quotation

Concluding: use a comma after a quotation followed by an ID tag Example: Ms. Ligeros said, “Open your books to page 143.” Example: “Most writers,” explained Mr. White, “use the Oxford comma in a list.” Example: “I’m all ready to go,” said Peter. Commas before quotation marks go OUTSIDE the quotation marks
Commas after quotation marks go INSIDE the quotation marks 1. Wolf pups learn to hunt by playing with each other explained Virginia.

2. When wolves gather to hunt said Saba they howl to warn other wolves to stay out of their territory.

3. Wolves added Joseph are careful that they are downwind from their pray.

4. Mica smiled and answered they hunt in a single line until the chase starts.

5. Sometimes the wolves give up because the prey is too fast concluded Doug. (Compound Sentences) Bob hit the ball well. + He accidentally ran toward 3rd base. = Bob hit the ball well, but he accidentally ran toward 3rd base. connect 2 independent clauses stand alone sentence subject + verb comma space conjunction coordinating: and, but, or, for, nor, so, yet NEVER use a comma with a conjunction that connects two words or phrases! ex: I went to the store, and to the bank. ex. I bought some chips, and a pop. place a comma before the word "because!" ex. You don't put one there, because it's a dependent clause. ex. If that doesn't work, don't do it, because I said so. Homework:
Write 5 senteces connecting two independent clauses with a conjunction.
(use commas effectively) (subordinate clause) has a subject and verb
but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence independent she performed her solo dependent after she performed her solo Common Starters: after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while The Rules: 1. Use a comma after a dependent clause if it comes before the main clause 2. Don't use a comma before a dependent clause if it comes after the main clause While I was eating, the cat scratched the door.

If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.

Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class.

When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway. The cat scratched the door while I was eating.

You ought to see a doctor if you are ill.

She was late for class because her alarm clock was broken.

We'll shovel the driveway when the snow stops falling. 5. Participle Phrases participle- verb form (present or past) used as an adjective -ing -ed
-(irregular) talking, doing,
eating, wanting opened, jumped, grown, felt, eaten, held The instructor, speaking slowly, explained the use of skis. participle phrase- participle and words that go with it or modify it Choosing her slope, the skier looked at its features carefully. extra information
not the main verb of the sentence
not the verb the subject is doing On the table, I saw several packages wrapped in gold paper Rules: 1. If beginning a sentence, set off with a comma 2. If in the middle, set off with 2 commas 3. If at the end and next to the word it modifies, no comma *4. If at the end and not next to the word it modifies, set off with a comma The skier looked at the mountain's features carefully, choosing her slope. *participle phrase should stay next to the word it modifies unless it won't cause confusion Good: Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing joyously. Bad: Lisa waved at Nancy, laughing joyously. dangling modifier 6. Infinitive phrases infinitive- verb form that starts with "to"
- can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb to swim to ride to laugh To be a doctor, you need 8 years of college.
My life goal, to own an airplane, finally came true.
Bill is working hard to pay off his college debt. Rules:
1. beginning - use a comma after
2. middle - use a commas on both sides
3. end - no comma 7. Appositives Nouns placed after another noun to define, clarify, or explain it appositive phrases - an appositive with modifiers (adj & adv) I want to visit France's famous museum, the Louvre.
Mr. White, an aspiring novelist, has written several short stories.
My mom, a math teacher, teaches in Fort Dodge.
Heather, my sister, lives in Des Moines.
I drink mate, a South American tea, every morning. Rules: 1. Set off with commas if non-essential to sentence.

2. No commas if the meaning is essential to the sentence.
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