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Copy of Infusing 21st Century Skills into the Curriculum and the Impact on Teachers and Students
Transcript of Copy of Infusing 21st Century Skills into the Curriculum and the Impact on Teachers and Students
Lynette Ann Liew Infusing 21st Century Skills into the Curriculum and the Impact on Teachers and Students What is Discourse? “A respectful but engaged conversation in which students can clarify their own thinking and learn from others.” What are 21st Century Skills? Framework for 21st Century Skills Purpose and Research Questions To inquire into the teachers’ understanding of pedagogic change and the impact of the implementation on teaching and learning, the following three questions were formulated:
1. How are teachers trained to help them implement 21st century competencies—in this context, critical thinking using discourse pedagogy—into the curriculum?
2. What is the impact on teachers and students of using discourse pedagogy in the classroom?
3. What are some support systems that need to be in place in order to achieve sustained success in implementing 21st century competencies into the curriculum? Incorporate more student-to-student discourse so that students will be more engaged, own their learning and ultimately develop CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS Why use Discourse? Ask yourself this... Which thought cloud describes you best? Goals Student achievement will also improve as a result of the development of this skill In Groups of 4 1.Fold paper into half lengthwise.
2.Fold it again into half.
3.Fold the corner into a triangle.
4.Get each person to take notes of what the other person said and write it in one section of the paper.
5.summarizerise in the diamond at center and share your collective statement. Why is student-to-student discourse important in the classroom and how you can incorporate it in your lessons? Competencies for the 21st Century Curriculum 21 Review of the Literature Hargreaves, Moore and Manning (2001)The intellectual work of change
Cultural perspective Herron (1971)
Teachers’ understanding comprise 3 variables
1. Their points of view embodied in the materials
2. Teachers’ perceptions of these points of view
3. Correlative viewpoints of the teachers’ themselves (which may or may not agree with the first two).
Gives rise to 4 distinct situations
1. Teacher does not adequately perceive the point of view of the materials, but his personal views are basically in agreement with them,
2. Teacher does not adequately perceive the point of view of the materials, and his own personal views are basically counter to them,
3. Teacher adequately perceives the point of view of the materials and is basically in agreement with them,
4. Teacher adequately perceives the point of view of the materials, but basically is in disagreement with them. (Herron, 1971, p. 50) Wenger (998)
Humans are social beings and knowing can be brought about through active engagement in the world.
Communities of Practice (CoP)
Dufour & Eaker (1998)4 prerequisites required for collaborative teams to work:
Time to collaborate
Structures to collaborate
Training and support for teachers
Teachers need to accept responsibility to work together
Lesson Study to meet the second prerequisite. Findings In the pre-lesson interviews, all of the respondents had expressed that discourse in the classroom would take the form of student-to-student discourse.
This was consistent with the definition that the school had communicated with the teachers.
Made initiation of the change an easier task—Points of view of the goals embedded in the framework were in agreement with what they believed in (Herron, 1971) Findings However, in the interviews, only 3 out of the 5 teacher respondents mentioned critical thinking as an end goal
Only 1 out of the 2 teacher respondents, EL(2), who has had 25 years experience as an educator, had expressed his firm belief that all discourse should lead to critical thinking.
The clarity of change (Fullan, 2007). Findings Planning Stage:
Teachers’ intentions on how often to use the pedagogy in the classroom
Teacher-to-student discourse (use of questioning to invoke deeper thinking)
Classroom environment (arrangement of furniture; group dynamics)
Structures (e.g. grouping, monitoring etc)
Technical Perspective of the intellectual work of change (Hargreaves, et al., 2001) Methodology Data Collection:
Interviews with 2 RTs, 5 Teachers and the SDT
Lesson observations (2 EL, 2 Science, 1 Math)
Identification of concerns
Identification of issues
Themes Case Study Design Sampling
Trustworthiness of Research
Transferability THEME 1: TEACHERS’ UNDERSTANDING OF THE MEANING OF DISCOURSE AND ALIGNMENT WITH SCHOOL OUTCOMES. Findings What teachers wanted:
Models of discourse
Sample lesson plans
Feedback and coaching
RTs support in PD and the syllabus
Discourse Monitoring Tool
Technical Perspective of the intellectual work of change (Hargreaves, et al., 2001) THEME 2: UNDERSTANDING OF DISCOURSE PEDAGOGY AND IMPACT ON IMPLEMENTATION THEME 3: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT FOR TEACHERS IN THE USE OF DISCOURSE PEDAGOGY Recommendation 1 There is a need to reiterate what discourse is and the goals that the school has—developing critical thinking in students.
21st Century Skills
Levels of Critical Thinking; E.g. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revisiting the School's Goals for the Use of Discourse Pedagogy Recommendation 2 Tests: Aligning planning of lessons and tests to the Common Core State Standards Including but not limited to skills necessary for formal presentations, the Speaking and Listening standards require students to develop a range of broadly useful oral communication and interpersonal skills. Students must learn to work together, express and listen carefully to ideas, integrate information from oral, visual, quantitative and media sources, evaluate what they hear, use media and visual displays strategically to help achieve communicative purposes, and adapt speech to context and task. (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010) Speaking and Listening: Flexible Communication and Collaboration Recommendation 3 Use of Lesson Study as a PD tool to structure grade alike PLCs
De-privatization of the classroom
Modeling PLCs as a Platform for Sustained and Effective Change What I have Learned from
Spring Brook High School What the school did well Collecting data to inform planning
Walkthroughs (in Dec 2011)
Surveys (in April 2012)SDT
Walkthroughs (in Nov 2012)
Supportive RTs who are doing a plethora of things to help teachers adapt to this change:
Lunch time sharing
IC meetings and commitments by RTs and APs to support teachers in this endeavor
Faculty meeting sharing sessions and discussions on the use of discourse in the classroom.
Frequent informal walkthroughs and feedback conducted by RTs.
SDT walkthroughs and feedback. What I have Shared with
Spring Brook High School Resources given to the School: Slides for sharing with the IC and/or Faculty on the recommendations and the way ahead
Research report What I will take back Home Resources given to the School: Sharing the best practices and incorporating these into the current structures that are in place in Clementi Town Secondary School.
Sharing at the cluster level
Building a resource website to help staff developers build teachers' capacities in teaching 21st Century Skills. http://lynliew.wix.com/century21ideasbank Use of Discourse in Spring Brook High School Use of student-to-student discourse in the classroom
This will lead to the development of Critical Thinking skills in students.
In the long term, this will lead to improvement in student achievement. Thank you!