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Washington Treaties

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by

Chris Santos

on 10 June 2016

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Transcript of Washington Treaties

Background
-mid 1800's settlers began coming to Washington Territory

-Isaac Stevens appointed governor in 1853

Treaties:
Location
Washington Treaties
Stevens' main goals was to create more land for Indians to settle

Stevens powered through ten major treaties with tribes and bands
Goals and Objective
Medicine Creek- Dec. 1854
Point Elliott- Jan. 1855
Point No Point-Jan.1855 (pictured top left)
Neah Bay- Jan. 1855 (right)
Yakamas-June 1855
Walla Wallas-June 1855
Nez Perce-June 1855
Olympia- Jan.1856
Language Barrier
language barrier prevented treaties from being more fair

tribes had very primitive language so the settlers thought they were very simple minded because lots was lost in translation
Chinook Jargon
-each tribe had their own language

-Chinook Jargon developed as a mixture of all the languages and dialects spoken by all the tribes involved in a treaty

-Chinook Jargon had a simple vocabulary and was easy to learn

-Stevens insisted on using this unified language instead of a translator
Stubbornness and Signatures
Stevens would appoint a chief to sign the treaty for each tribe

some refused to sign due to a fear of not having enough to hunt or because of a spiritual connection with the land
If a chief did refuse to sign this did not faze Stevens
He would find a sub chief to sign or threaten them with
his extensive military forces to make them sign
Tribal Rights
-tribes were allowed to fish and hunt
-tribes could not trade outside USA
-tribes must cooperate
-tribes must not damage property
-no raids
-no liquor on reservations
-tribes must stay on reservation

Tribal Warfare
the treaties were considered peace treaties because they ended tribal warfare

but these treaties did not bring peace for all
Cultural Impact
By: Jane Huber
Oregon (1853)
Washington (1853)
-whites employed a blacksmith, farmer, and carpenter on all reservations to educate tribes&bands
-also employed a physician to vaccinate
all the natives and give medicine when needed
Indians' Schooling
-they wove job training into this school
-school was new for Indian children
-USA funded a school for each reservation
-USA paid teachers and managed upkeep
Imagine....
Indians eventually went to school with whites
they were required to change their names and their culture was immersed more than ever
Economic and Political Impact
Indians had differing views on land ownership than that of settlers
it wasn't just moving them to reservations, another approach was tried years later
Dawes Act of 1887
Payment



thinking back to initial treaties...

a payment was generally settled upon in each

ranged anywhere from 32,500-40,000 USD
Lies and Loopholes
often not paid in full

treaty stated that the president could do with the
money as he saw fit

superintendent of Indian Affairs would
inform the president of the tribe's wishes
Today
note: not all tribes signed treaties

24 tribes have off reservation hunting rights in WA state today
Conclusion
The End!!!!
Full transcript