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Kingdom Animalia

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kenzie kra

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Kingdom Animalia

Honors Bio
(last test!!) Kingdom Animalia Vocab... More Vocab..... Symmetry: similarity or balance among body
structures of organism's
Bilateral: mirror image half's
Radial: can be divided along any plane
Protostome: the mouth develops from the first opening in the gastrula
Deuterostome: the anus develops in the first opening in the gastrula Even More Vocab.... Acoelomate: Animals without colons Anterior: Head end
Posterior: tail end
Dorsal: Back side
Ventral: underside
Cephalization: The tendency to concentrate nervous tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of the animal. Psuedocoelom: Fluid Filled body cavity that develops between
the meso and the endoderm coelom: Fluid filled cavity that holds suspended organs Endoderm: inside skin, digestive organs and digestive tract lining
Ectoderm: outside skin, nervous tissue and skin
Mesoderm: muscle tissue and circulatory excretory and respiratory systems. Body Cavity Types.. Pseudocoelomate: Coelomates: Protostomes and Deuterostomes Even more vocab.. Vertebrate: has an endoskeleton
Invertebrate: has and exoskeleton
Endoskeleton: has a vertebrate
exoskeleton: has an hard shell or invertebrate
internal fertilization: eggs and sperm combined inside body
external fertilization: eggs and sperm combined outside body
blastula: fluid filled balls of cells formed by mitotic cell division of embryo
gastrula: two layer sac with an opening at one end formed from the bastula
Hermaphrodite: animal that produces both egg and sperm
Zygote: fertilized egg formed when a sperm cell penetrates and egg. Crash Course Biology Video... Phylum Porifera: Sponges! Sponges (poriferans) are very simple animals that live permanently attached to a location in the water - they are sessile as adults. There are from 5,000 to 10,000 known species of sponges. Most sponges live in salt water - only about 150 species live in fresh water. Sponges evolved over 500 million years ago.
The body of this primitive animal has thousands of pores which let water flow through it continually. Sponges obtain nourishment and oxygen from this flowing water. The flowing water also carries out waste products. Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrzoa
Class Scyphozoa
Class Anthozoa Hydra
Coral The Phylum Cnidaria includes such diverse forms as jellyfish, hydra, sea anemones, and corals. Cnidarians are radially or biradially symmetric, a general type of symmetry believed primitive for eumetazoans. They have achieved the tissue level of organization, in which some similar cells are associated into groups or aggregations called tissues, but true organs do not occur. Cnidarian bodies have two or sometimes three layers. A gastrovascular cavity (coelenteron) has a single exterior opening that serves as both mouth and anus. Often tentacles surround the opening. Some cells are organized into two simple nerve nets, one epidermal and the other gastrodermal, that help coordinate muscular and sensory functions. Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms Class Oligochecta
Class Hirudinea Earthworms
Leeches The annelids include earthworms, polychaete worms, and leeches. All members of the group are to some extent segmented, in other words, made up of segments that are formed by subdivisions that partially transect the body cavity. Segmentation is also called metamerism. Segments each contain elements of such body systems as circulatory, nervous, and excretory tracts. Metamerism increases the efficiency of body movement by allowing the effect of muscle contraction to be extremely localized, and it makes possible the development of greater complexity in general body organization. Phylum
Flat Worms; no Coelem Class Turbellaria:
Class Trematoda:
Class Cestoda: Free living Planaria
Parasitic Flukes
Parasitic Tapeworms Planaria: Scavenger, eats dead fish.
Flukes: Blood Flukes, Liver Flukes (Causes irritation and bleeding liver), Chinese Liver Fluke (causes Swimmers Itch)
Parasitic Tapeworm: Can get up to 3' or longer. Self fertilizes and lives in intestines. Hermaphrodites. Gravid Prolotids brake off and gets washed out of the body to find new hosts.
Body Parts: Scolex-head, Hooks, Suckers, Proglotid, gravid prolotids (eggs) Phylum Nemotoda: Round Worms (Pseudo Coelem, Unsegmented) Parasites Trichina-Curls up in a tiny pouch (microscopic) in pork.
Vinegar eels-plant parasite/they don't harm humans
Hook worms-pets get them/they can come up through your feet
ascaris worms-1' long and can plug up your intestines
pin worms-common, butt scratching spreads them (True Coelem) Earthworm Body parts:
5 hearts
circulatory system Leech Body Parts:
anterior Sucker
Posterior Sucker
3 Cutting Jaws Flat Worms vs. Round worms Phylum Mollusca:
Shell Bearing Class Gastropoda: belly foot
Snails, slugs and nudibranch Characteristics:
1 shell
largest sea snail: 2 feet
largest land snail-8 inches Torsion: a twisting of the body during larval stage to form shell
Operculum: flat plate on foot arch like a trap door -without it would dry out
Moves on a mucus trail. Phylum Mollusca part 2 Class Bivaliva: Class Cephlopoda: Head foot Bivalves-2 shells
clams, oysters, scallops
Salt and fresh water species
shell components-tough outer layer
inner layer-naker or mother of pearl Can swim by pushing water through its shell No radula! Clam Body parts:
In current Siphon
Out current Siphon
Gills Marine Predators
eat fish, crabs, other shell fish Octopus 8 arms ink defense
well developed eyes
no inner mantle
jet propulsion Chromataphones-Change Colors Squid Shell under mantle
10 tentacles
jet propulsion but uses fins to swim large eyes chramatepones Phylum Mollusca Part 3 Cuttle Fish: Nautlids: Shell under mantle
More colors and patterns then all the others
Dozens of tentacles External shell
Lives on the bottom of the ocean Body parts:
Sucker Discs
Hooks Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta: Major body segments of most insects-3
90% of all phylum arthropoda are insects
750 thousend species of insects
2 pairs of wings and 3 pairs of legs
wings and legs attached to thorax
benefit humans-honey, decomposers, pollinate plants
harm humans- vectors for disease, eat crops, suck our blood.
Insects have compound eyes, helps it fly quickly through obsticles and detects motion in multiple directions
Mosquito mothparts are designed to pirce skin and suck jucies frm flowers
Lice found on the head ears and back of the neck. Phylum Arthropoda Class Crustacea: Crustaceans have 2 body segments
The head and the thorax are fused to form the cephlothorax
the prefix "cephalo "means fused
The thick walled exoskeleton of the arthropods is made of a material called chitin which acts like a moveable armor and sometimes can be even more fortified with calcium salts in many crustaceans such as lobster.
Crabs lack an abdomen crayfish do not
A pill bug is an isopod in this class, it is terrestrial
Fresh water crustacean, Zebra mussel and Crayfish
Barnacles are sessile, that means they are fixed in one place
Barnacles have segments
crayfish have 3 pairs of legs
hermit crabs have a borrowed shell segmented barnacle legs Phylum Arthropoda Class Arachnida Arachnids have 2 major body segments
Chelicera-used to inject poison and suck juices from prey
they have a cepholothorax
spider pedipalps-sensory used by spiders in reproduction
scorpion pedipals-pincers used for grasping prey
4 pairs of walking legs
Horseshoe crabs are arachnids
Ticks and mites have one body segment
Black widow and brown recluse are venous spiders found in Michigan
spinneret and silk glands allow spiders to spin silk
deer ticks are vectors for Lyme disease
immediate symptoms of Lyme disease are fever and chills
long term symptoms are arthritis mental problems and hear irregularity
mites consume dead skin flakes on your body and in your house Dog tick Phylum Arthropoda Class Chilopoda and Class Diplopoda Myriapod means-many feet
Myriapods live in dark moist places
Centipedes are members of the Chilopoda class
Millipedes are members of the Diplopoda Class
Centipedes have 1 pair of legs per segment
Millipedes have 2 pairs of legs per segment
centipedes are predators they have poisoned pincers
millipedes are herbivores they eat decaying plant material Centipede Cross section Millipede Cross section Phylum Echinodermata Starfish, sea urchins, sand dollar, brittle stars, sea cucumbers and sea biscuits Marine habitat
Spines constructed of calcium
endoskeleton covered by skin
Contains five or more extensions called arms
arms are arranged around the central disc
when they feed they tire out the clams abductor muscles and then they eject their stomach into the clam turning the clams insides to soup which they slurp out and the stomach retracts.
They have a nerve ring
respires through gills
they can reproduce both sexually (external fertilization)
and asexually (regeneration)
Water vascular system for locomotion Suction cups to ampula to radial canal to ring canal to stone canal out the sive plate Phylum Chrodata Subphylum vertebrata The vertebrates: Characteristics:
bilateral symmetry
2 pairs of appendages (fins wings limbs)
closed circulatory system
endoskeleton (brine, cartilage, both)
back bone
axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton Classes: Agnatha
Mamilia Fish Phylum Chrodata
Class Osteicichthyes (Bony Fish) 95% Of all species
smooth flat scales
There are three groups:
lobe finned-one spices -coelacanth
Lung Fish both lungs and gills
ray finned-Finns contain bones (majority of fish) Fish body parts:
Anteroir dorsal fin
swim bladder
operculum pectoral fin
pelvic fin
lateral line
caudal fin
posterior dorsal fin Phylum Chordata
Class Chondrichthyes (Skeleton made of cartilage) Skin is rough like sand paper
Teeth continuously replaced
5 to 7 pairs of gills Sharks Skates and Rays 2/3 of its brain dedicated to its sense of smell
whale sharks largest
smell blood 1/4 mile away
baby sharks are called pups
blue sharks are the fastest
internal fertilization
can see for 50 feet Pectoral fins are large and flat
eats small fish and invertabreates
spines inject venom Phylum Chordata
Class Agnatha Hag Fish (Jaw less fish) Sea lamprey cold Ocean Water
Benthic Zone
Scavenger Salt/fresh water
well developed eyes
oral disc
great lake invader Phylum Chordata
Class Amphibia Characteristics: Respiration trough lungs and skin
stays near water to keep skin moist
feet are claw less and some are webbed
cold blooded
requires water to lay eggs other wise they would dry out
most abundant in the tropics
external fertilization-male massages female with his hands eggs come out and then he releases sperm, called amplexsis "Double Life" order anura-(tail less) Frogs and toads
Order urodella-(with Tail) Salamander, newts and mudpuppys
Order Apula- (legless) Concillum Hinged Tongue
Vemerine Teeth
Maxillery Teeth
Vocal Pouch
Dark Thumbs-male
eyes used for swallowing
front legs are shock absorbers
mucous glands
dorsolatteral fold
mictitating membrane
tympanic membrane Phylum Chordata
Class Reptilia Characteristics: Toes with claws
Excretes waste as uric acid
3 Chambers Heart Alligator and Croc 4 chambers
scales cover body
Internal fertilization
amniotic egg Order Crocodilia Crocodile/aligator/camin Alligator Crocodile (All Reptiles
have amniotic eggs) Phylum Chordata
Class Reptilia Order Chelonia Order Sauamata Turtles and Tortoises
some omnivores
some carnivorous
no teeth
sharp beak
150 spices
tortoise life span 150 years
short claws female
longs claws male
turtles semi aquatic
tortoises terrestrial Snakes and lizards
How do they kill their prey?
swallow whole
snakes cant hear
lizards can hear
poisones snakes of Michigan: cotton mouth water moccasin corral snake raddle snake
Views the world in infered
snakes run the chemical from the tongue on the jacobsons organ to tell if its prey or predator Best of luck to
everyone! Venom Gland
Venom Duct
Forked tongue used to taste the air
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