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Globalisation and Development
Transcript of Globalisation and Development
What is meant by development?
Development - economic, demographic, social, political and cultural changes associated with development; the development continuum.
factors and dimensions: flows of capital, labour, products and services; global marketing; patterns of production, distribution and
Patterns and processes
Countries at very low levels of economic development
Characteristics and issues – quality of life, debt, social problems.
The concept of the North/South divide, and its relationship to the development continuum.
Reasons for the social and economic groupings of nations, with particular reference to the European Union.
The consequences of the groupings of nations.
Global social and economic groupings
Transnational corporations (TNCs): characteristics and spatial organisation.
Reasons for the growth and the spatial organisation of transnational corporations (TNCs).
Case study of one TNC should be undertaken.
Social, economic and environmental impacts of TNCs on their host countries, and their countries of origin
Aspects of globalisation
Newly Industrialised countries (NICs): their initial
growth, with particular reference to the “Asian Tiger”
Further growth of NICs, with particular reference to China.
Globalisation of services, with particular reference to India.
Growth in the 21st century – the impact of new markets and new technologies (for example in Brazil,
Russia and oil-producing countries).
“Trade versus aid”.
“Economic sustainability versus environmental
“Sustainable tourism, myth or reality”.
Development issues within the world
Development and Globalisation
Why study development?
What is development?
How can it be analysed?
How can it be measured?
How can we divide the world up according to development?
Dividing the world up according to the level of development is NOT easy!
Within local areas
So what affects a countries progress along the development continuum?
Political and Cultural Change
Read Geofactsheets: Measuring Development and The Development Gap.
Answer questions 1 - 3 from purple sheets
Changing Development Over Time
1st, 2nd, 3rd world
20th century thought
Process of change
1. Raising people’s living standards, their incomes, consumption levels of food, medical services, education etc. through relevant economic growth processes.
2. Raising people’s self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions that promote dignity and respect.
3. Increasing people’s freedom by enlarging the range of their choices, e.g. varieties of consumer goods.
6 GNP Problems
3 bullet points in conclusion
Measuring Development Reading Summary
Check that you know what each of these things are referring to.
8 things that are preventing development
Rapid Pop Growth
Lack of Capital
How can the gap be closed?
How can development happen?
How should development of LEDCs happen?
Rostow's Modernisation Theory
Preconditions for take off
Drive to maturity
Age of high mass consumption
By the end of WW2 some poorer parts of the world were devestated, Communism has spread through Eastern Europe, China and Korea and caused panic in the USA. By the mid 1950s, American money was pouring into India and South-East Asia in an effort to prevent futher expansion of communism. V.W.Rostow has produced an economic model aimed at promoting economic development and reducing poverty through
. The idea was that aid, loans and investment would prevent countries turning to communism and enable them to proceed on smooth development path.
Take-off in stage three is the crucial stage:
society and economy transformed.
steady growth continues at this point.
10% of natural wealth is reinvested in the economy
key manufacturing and administrative systems develop.
if take-off fails, there is a risk of communism taking over.
Countries such as Singapore, Thailand, South Korea and Taiwan experienced rapid economic growth due to the money that poured in, and that exports grew rapidly. They became the newly industrialised countries of South East Asia.
India introduced the Green Revolution's modern farming techniques during the 1940s to 1970s. It became dependent on the USA for machinery, fertilisers, and seeds but development was boosted and it probably helped to avoid a communist revolution.
Core and Periphery Theory
Core and Periphery Animation:
Most wealth produced
N America, Europe, Japan
Owns and consumers 80% of goods and services
Earns highest incomes
Makes most decisions about the global economy
Provides most global investment
Distant from core markets
Own and consume 20% of global products and services, despite having 80% of global population.
Earn low incomes - 2.5 billion people live on under $2 a day
Make few decisions about global economy
Provide little global investment
Characteristics of each region?
Manufacturing has fallen in the old core and risen in new peripheral areas because of cheap labour. But core countries still profit because they dictate to the new production lines.
Now, flows of finished and semi-finished goods from per referral countries are added to the traditional flows of commodities and raw materials. But investment and decision making remain in the core.
Fisher Clark's model of employment change over time.
Can you think of examples that show the control we still have over the periphery?
How does this link to the last 2 lessons?
Make some notes on the core - periphery theory and produce a table that contrasts the characteristics of countries in each sector of the model.
From the Measuring Development Factsheet, answer one of the 5 questions in essay format. Due next lesson.
Exam Hints, Tips and Techniques
Writing a lot is different to writing a good essay!
1 - Introduce the essay
Define key terms
Set out context to which essay is referring
2 - Arrange the main body of the essay
Argue or show knowledge from both sidesDo not just write whatever comes next
Organise so that you:
classify those on one side of an arguement from those on the other - social, environmental, economic for eg.
consider which arguements are strong on each side and which are weaker.
Progress towards an answer, eg from factors that strongly support an arguement to those that support it less so.
In each case keep coming back to the title.
3 - Summarise your answer to the question in a conclusion
Answer the question fully - showing where the balance of the arguement lies, or evaluating which are the greatest impacts. Wait until now to do this - don't give it all away in the introduction!
Level 1: attempts the question to some extent (basic)
An answer at this level is likely to:
• display a basic understanding of the topic
• make one or two points without support of appropriate exemplification or application of principle
• give a basic list of characteristics, reasons and attitudes
• provide a basic account of a case study, or provide no case study evidence
• give a response to one command of a question where two (or more) commands are stated e.g. describe and suggest reasons
• demonstrate a simplistic style of writing perhaps lacking close relation to the terms of the question and unlikely to communicate complexity of subject matter
• lack organisation, relevance and specialist vocabulary
• demonstrate deficiencies in legibility, spelling, grammar and punctuation which detract from the clarity of meaning.
Level 2: answers the question (well/clearly)
An answer at this level is likely to:
• display a clear understanding of the topic
• make one or two points with support of appropriate exemplification and/or application of principle
• give a number of characteristics, reasons, attitudes
• provide clear use of case studies
• give responses to more than one command e.g. describe and explain...
• demonstrate a style of writing which matches the requirements of the question and acknowledges the potential complexity of the subject matter
• demonstrate relevance and coherence with appropriate use of specialist vocabulary
• demonstrate legibility of text, and qualities of spelling, grammar and punctuation which do not detract from the clarity of meaning.
Level 3: answers the question very well (detailed)
An answer at this level is likely to:
• display a detailed understanding of the topic
• make several points with support of appropriate exemplification and/or application of principle
• give a wide range of characteristics, reasons, attitudes
• provide detailed accounts of a range of case studies
• respond well to more than one command
• demonstrate evidence of discussion, evaluation, assessment and synthesis depending on the requirements of the assessment
• demonstrate a sophisticated style of writing incorporating measured and qualified explanation and comment as required by the question and reflecting awareness of the complexity of subject matter and incompleteness/ tentativeness of explanation
• demonstrate a clear sense of purpose so that the responses are seen to closely relate to the requirements of the question with confident use of specialist vocabulary
• demonstrate legibility of text, and qualities of spelling, grammar and punctuation which contribute to complete clarity of meaning.
Level 4: answers the question with depth, flair, creativity and insight
In addition to the requirements of Level 3, an answer at this level is likely to:
• provide strong evidence of thorough, detailed and accurate knowledge and critical understanding of concepts and principles and of specialist vocabulary.
• give explanations, arguments and assessments or evaluations that are direct, logical, perceptive, purposeful, and show both balance and flair.
• demonstrate a high level of insight, and an ability to identify, interpret and synthesise a wide range of material with creativity.
• demonstrate evidence of maturity in understanding the role of values, attitudes and decision-making processes.
Mark schemes for essays
2 years to go
Explore this interactive map: http://iif.un.org/sites/iif.un.org/files/StatPlanet/StatPlanet.html?l=Net%20ODA%20(%%20of%20GNI)
What do you know?
What do you want to know?
What is globalisation?
It is not a global culture, but in reality American culture. Some people have called it Cultural Imperialism. This has lead in some cases to violent reactions.
It is not inclusive, the poorest can’t afford it, despite often being the workers, nor has the process of globalisation penetrated certain locations. Global culture, people have argued, is the preserve of an educated professional elite.
It is a censored culture. National governments have chosen to filter exposure to certain aspects of culture that they feel are unsuitable or undermine their power.
It is undermines diversity. Aspects of global culture may undermine/conflict with local/national cultures, critics argue it is the movement to a standard identity.
It undermines national economies. National producers of food, music and culture, can’t compete with large multinational companies and their resources.
It lacks choice. A decreasing number of multi-nationals offering popular culture means less choice for consumers and potentially less value for money.
Culture evolves. Culture has evolved over time and the process of globalisation is just seen as a natural extension of this process.
Cultural fusion. It is not only America that has influenced global culture, Asian countries such as Japan have had a huge influence, for example computing and gaming.
People have choice. There is not international conspiracy, consumers have a choice in the culture they consume.
Greater understanding. Increasing interconnectiveness makes the process of conflict more difficult, we have more in common. There have been no global conflicts in over half a century.- Global Village- tolerance through uniformity (?).
Improved equality. Some believe that exposure to Western culture has had a positive impact on the rights of individuals, for example the role of women in certain societies.
For a global culture
Against a global culture
A global culture??
'The way in which people's lives are becoming increasingly intertwined with those of distant people around the world, in economic, cultural and political terms.'
TNCs have been the major force in increasing economic interdependence and several generations of NICs have emerged.
Western culture has diffused to all parts of the world through TV, cinema, the internet, newspapers and magazines. Reflected in media, art, sport and leisure pursuits.
The influence of nation states has diminished in many areas as more and more countries organise themselves into trade blocs. The influence of Western democracies on developing countries has also been strong.
Summer holiday reading follow up...
Globalisation of Manufacturing
NICs have significant advantages over old industrialised countries:
Lower labour costs
Lower business taxes
Fewer environmental controls
Increased pace of globalisation
Negative impact upon country of origin
International labour migration
Liberalisation of trade
Direct and foreign direct investment
Economic growth and development
Evidence for its improvement?
11th largest economy
Why a success?
Social and Political developments
Referring to examples, assess the impacts of rapid industrialisation on the Newly Industrialised Countries. (40)
Use text books and resource sheets
Refer back to essay mark scheme
Essay plan - due in Monday
I'll leave these on my desk on Tuesday
Tuesday's lesson I'm doing controlled assessment - can you please collect your plan and write your essay due in the following week.
Advantages and disadvantages of EU membership
Trade blocs - stepping stones to success or barriers to economic development?