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World History - The Beginning of the Cold War
Transcript of World History - The Beginning of the Cold War
The Soviet Union
How do Allies become enemies?
The Cold War
5 permanent members—the victors of World War II - China, France, Russia, Great Britain, and the U.S.
The United States was afraid of the spread of communism.
"The world order which we seek, is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society"
The United Nations
The General Assembly
The natural successor to the League of Nations.
Saw Capitalism as only good for the ruling class and a bad deal for workers
Worried about border security with Germany
Saw Communism as a dictatorship that oppressed its people
Chinese Civil War
The Korean civil War
North Korea was backed by Communist China and the Soviet Union.
South Korea was backed by the United Nations
The Cuban Revolution
The U.s trained and supplied a rebel group's attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro and the communist government.
1961- Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviet Union plants weapons 90 miles off the coast of Florida.
During WWII, the U.S. and Soviet Union united in a common goal: to defeat Germany and Japan.
When the war ended differences emerged...
"In these circumstances it is clear that the main element of any United Stats policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient but vigilant
of Russian expansive tendencies."
-George Kennan, 1946
central control economy
The Atomic Bomb ended World War II...
... but started a very different type of war.
"Victory in this war is the first and greatest goal...
The United Nations would help countries settle disputes before a war could start.
Containment in Action
Many European cities were destroyed during battle
Give European countires loans to rebuild.
The money must be spend on U.S. products
This made the Soviets nervous
The Soviets thought the United States was buying influence in Europe.
Both the United States and the Soviet Union created alliances. This was for protection in case of an attack.
The Berlin Airlift
When the Soviet Union blocked off Berlin...
... the U.S. flew supplies into their section of Berlin.
Greece and Turkey
"to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
-President Harry Truman
... Victory in the peace is the next."
United States sends the democratic Governments of Greece and Turkey $400 million in aid.
The Aid helps the Greece fend off the communist revolution.
After the War, Germany was divided into zones.
When the other allies moved to unite their sections, The Soviet Union blocked off their zone.
This was a symbol of the United States' commitment to containing communism.
By 1949, the Communists had become overwhelming by capturing the support of peasant groups interested in new land policies.
Fighting, which started in 1927, and paused during World War II, was heavy between 1946 and 1949, claiming 8 million Chinese lives.
"Finally, you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the "falling domino" principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences"
- President Dwight D. Eisenhower
During World War II, Japan occupied Korea.
The Soviet Army liberated the north and the U.S. Army liberated the south. Unification was planned...
... but who would be in charge?
After 3 years of bloody conflict, the war ended where it began.
Containment comes close to home
The Cuban Missile Crisis is the closest the world has ever come to Nuclear War
In 1959, a young revolutionary named Fidel Castro leads a revolt against the United States backed military leader of Cuba.
The plot not only failed but also helped Castro unite the people of Cuba behind him.
Communism was now 90 miles away.
After World War I, countries met to create a new plan for Europe.
Great Britain, Italy and France
Wilson's 14 Points
1-5 address the causes
of World War 1
World War 2 - The Allies
Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain
Recall that a bitter civil war had been ongoing between the Nationalists and the Communists when the Japanese invaded China in 1937. During World War II, the two sides temporarily united to fight the Japanese. Each side sought its own strategic advantage.
Led by Mao Zedong, the Communists were entrenched in the northwest & organized a peasant force to wage guerrilla war against the Japanese. The Communists earned the loyalty of the people by promoting literacy and with equitable food distribution & land reform. By 1945, they controlled much of northern China.
The Nationalist forces (called the Kuomintang or KMT) under Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek) were based in southwestern China. They received substantial support from the US ($2 billion) but most of this money and material went into pockets of corrupt officials. The Nationalists fought few battles against the Japanese. and saved their weapons to use on the Communists.
The civil war resumed as soon as the Japanese were defeated.
With China’s economy collapsing, thousands of Nationalist soldiers deserted to the Communists. In spring 1949, China’s major cities fell to the Red forces. In October 1949, Mao Zedong gained control of the country & proclaimed it the People’s Republic of China. The Nationalists retreated to the island of Taiwan.