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India, because of its gigantic size and varied geological st

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Transcript of India, because of its gigantic size and varied geological st

India, because of its gigantic size and varied geological structure, has extensive and rich deposits of Industrially important minerals.
Not only reserves of high grade iron ore, but also good reserves of alloy minerals, such as
manganese, chromite and titanium, flux minerals (limestone, dolomite, gypsum, etc.)
and
refractories (magnesite, kyanite and sillimanite)
are present here.
India is, however, weaker in non-ferrous metallic minerals as a group particularly in
copper, lead, zinc, tin, graphite, tungsten and mercury.
although reserves of bauxite and mica are plenty. It is also poor in minerals required by the chemical fertiliser Industry including
sulphur, potash and rock phosphate.
large reserves of bituminous coal are found but there is
scarcity of cooking coal and petroleum
in the country.
How ever, it holds a
strong position
in the atomic minerals like
uranium and thorium.
There are about
3,168 mines
in India, out of which
570
are fuel mines,
563
metallic mineral mines and
1975
nonmetallic mines.
Mineral sector accounts for
11.5%
of the country's industrial output and nearly
8%
of GDP.
Chhotanagpur Plateau
is known as
'the mineral heart'
land of India.
Mineral Resources of India:
The country possesses more than
100 minerals
out of which reserves of 30 minerals are economically significant
coal, Iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, etc.
are some of them.
The resources of certain industrially important minerals are, however, small in comparison to the needs of the country.
A number of organisations are resources in the country. These include
Geological survey of India (GSI).
Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, and
Indian Bureau of Mines(IBM).
Fuel Minerals - COAL :
is main energy resource. It is also used as raw material in many industries.
Total reserves of coal, down to a depth of 1200 metres, have been estimated at
2,08571.59
million tonnes by
the Geological Survey of India(GSI)
in
2004-05.
It is only one per cent of the total estimated coal reserves of the world. Along with limited reserves, indian coal is also of low grade.
Most of the coal is bituminous it is of cooking grade. Distribution of
bituminous coal
is very uneven.
Most of the reserves are concentrated in few river valleys of the eastern peninsular plateaus.
Consequently, heavy industries in other regions face crises of coal supply. India ranks third in the world after
China and USA
in Coal production.
STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION OF COAL
Jharkhand:

About one-third of the estimated coal reserves are distributed in the coal fields of Jharkhand.
Important coalfields of the state are
Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad and Hutar.
Part of the Raniganj coalfield of West Bengal falls in this state. Coal fields of the Damodar valley are the chief source of metallurgical coal in the country and most of the iron and steel plants get cooking coal from these fields.
Orissa.
Orissa is second in coal reserves third in production. About one-fourth of the total estimated coal reserves are confined to the coalfields of this state.
Talcher and Rampur are the important coalfields of this state.
Talcher has huge reserves of coal but of low grade, and hence suitable for steam and gas production.
Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh:
Coalfields of these states are traditionally put into four groups:
(a) Central Indian coalfields (Singrauli, Sohagpr, Johilla, Umaria),
(b) Satpura coalfields (pench, Kanhan and Pathkhera)
(c) North Chhattisgarh coalfields (Chirimiri-Kurasia, Bisrampur,
Jhilmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, Lakhanpur-Ramkola)
(d) South Chhattisgarh coalfields (HasdoArand, Korba, Mand-
Raigarh)
Other states:
In West Bengal Raniganj is the major coalfield while Darjeeling coalfield is small.
Andhra, Telangana accounts for 6.5 % per cent of coal reserves.

Coalfields of these state are Singareni, Kothagudam and Tandur in the Godavari valley important coalfields are Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee, and Bander.Part of the Singrauli coalfield is in Uttar Pradesh.
Tertiary coal is extracted from Daranggiri, Cherrapunji, Laitryngew, Mawlong and Langrin in Meghalaya; Makum, Jaipur and Nazira in upper Assam; Namchik- Namphuk area in Arunachal Pradesh and Kalakot in Jammu and Kashmir.
State Coal Reserves Type of Coalfield
(in billion metric tonnes)
Jharkhand 81.17 Gondwana
Odisha 75.90 Gondwana
Chhattisgarh 56.04 Gondwana
West Bengal 31.53 Gondwana
Madhya Pradesh 26.91 really
Telangana 21.41 Gondwana
Distribution of coal reserves by states
state - wise Coal production
State Production
Jharkhand 88.78
Chhattisgarh 83.18
Orissa 81.16
Madhya pradesh 59.73
COAL PRODUCTION
Two coal companies, namely,
Coal India Limited(CIL)
and
Singreni Collieries Company Limited(SCCL)
are engaged in coal production in the country.
Of total production, non-cooking coal accounts for 90 per cent and cooking coal for only 10 per cent.
At present, more than three fourths of the total coal produced comes from the opencast mines.
Lignite
Lignite is a low grade coal containing high moisture and lower carbon. The reserves of lignite have been estimated at
34.-1 68
billion tonnes.
88.4
per cent of it is contributed by the ignite basins of Tamil Nadu.
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited
exploits lignite reserves at
Neyveli.
Reserves of lignite are also found in
Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir.
Since lignite fields are located away from the main cola producing regions of the country, they can be of economic significance.
Petroleum
Total reserves of the hydrocarbons are estimated by GSI at
17 billion tones,
of which
75 per cent
have been established so far.
For exploration of petrol, wells were drilled in Upper Assam valley in
1866
, just seven years after the discovery of petroleum in
Pennsylvania in USA
Oil was discovery in
1890 in Digboi
area. Only Assam produced petroleum in the country until 1959 when Khambhat oil field was discovered in
1958
and the first well was drilled in
Ankaleshwar
in
1960.
First offshore drilling was started in 1970 at Aliabet in Gujara. Later, the Bombay (Mumbai) High was discovered in 1975 and production from this area started in 1976.
DISTRIBUTION OF OIL FIELDS
North- Eastern Region:
The well-known oil fields of this region are
Digboi (old field, 1866),

Naharkatiya,
Moran,

Rudrasagar,

Galeki
and
Hugrijan
.
In Tirap district of
Arunachal Pradesh,
there is Nigru oil field. In the nearby Nagaland, oil fields are at
Borholla,
close to
Nagaland Assam
border.
Gujarat Region:
Important oil fields of this region are
Ankleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol, Mehsana,Sanand and Lunej.
.
Oil has also been found on
the Aliabet
island situated
45 km
west of
Bhavnagar
in
Saurashtra.
Mumbai High:
Located in the Arabian sea 176 km north-west of Mumbai, it is an offshore oil field. At present it is the most important oil field in the country.
It produced
21,232
thousand tonnes of crude petroleum in
2002-03
which was nearly two -third
(65.28%)
of the total oil production of India.
The oil and natural gas a brought through submarine pipelines to Uran on the mainland. Another oilfield - Basin has been discovered south of Mumbai High.
The deposits of this area are considered to be richer than those of the Mumbai high.
East Coastal Region:
It extends over
the Krishna-Godavari
and
Kaveri
basins.The Oil and Natural gas Commission and
the Oil India Limited
carried extensive prospecting and exploration work in
1980
s.
In the offshore area of the Kaveri basin, important oilfieds are
Narimanam
and
Kovilappal.
In 1998-99,
about
451 thousand tonnes
of
crude petroleum
was produced from this basin , Oilfields have been discovered recently in the
Krishna-Godavari basin of Andhra Pradesh .
Petroleum has recently been found also in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan .it is onshore basin .
Oil Refineries
Refinery State
1 . Digboi , IOC Assam
2 . Trombay , HPCl Maharashtra
3 . Trombay , BPCL Maharashta
4 . Vishakhapatnam , HPCl Andhra Pradesh
5 . Noonmati , IOC Assam
6 . Barauni , IOC Bihar
Refinery States
7 . Koyali , IOC Gujarat
8 . Kochi , KRL Kerala
9 . Chennai , CPCL Tamil Nadu
10 . Haldia , IOC West Bengal
11 . Bongaigaon , BRPl Assam
12 . Mathura , IOCL Uttar Pradesh
13 . Numaligarh , NRL Assam
14. Jamnagar, RPL Gujarat
15.Panipat, IOCL Haryana
16. Mangalore, MRPL Karnataka
17.Tatipaka, ONGC Andhra Pradesh
18.Nagapattanam, CPCL Tamil Nadu
19. Jamnagar, Essar Gujarat
Refinery States
Production of crude petroleum
It was only 269 thusand tonnes in 1951. which rose to 1.08 million tonnes in 1962, and 34.52 million tonnes in 1995-96.
But it declined to 32.89 million tonnes in 1998-99 and 32.43 million tonnes in 2003-04.
Out of the total production, one-third 33.4 mt was produced from on-shore (11.5mt) oilfields and nearly two-thirds from offshore(21.9mt) oilfields.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation(ONGC) and Oil India Limited(OIL), the two national oil compenies and few private and joint venture companies are engaged in exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the country.
In
2000-01,
ONGC porduced
77.27
per cent, joint venture companies
12.61
per cent and
77.27
per cent, joint venture companies
12.61
per cent and OIL only
10.11
per cent of the total crude oil production in the country.
among the petroleum producing regions the mumbai High was at the top.
Producing nearly 1/4th (2002-03) of total production in 1998-99. Gujarat stood second, followed by Assam, T Nadu.
Production of petrolium
State/Basin ('000 tonnes)
Mumbai High 8058
Gujarat 6212
Assam 4400
Andhra Pradesh 252
Longest Petroleum Product Pipelines
S.no. Oil Company Pipeline Length
(km)

1. Petronet Kochi-Karur 2,952
2. IOC Salaya-Mathura- Panipat 1,745
3. IOC Kandla-Bhatinda 1,443
4. Gail Jamnagar-Loni 1,250
5. Oil Duliajan-Barauni 1157
Oil Rerfineries with the largest refining capacity
company location capacity
Reliance Petroleum Jamanagar 33
IOCL Koyali 14
IOCL Mathura 8
Managalore Refinery (ONGC) Mangalore 10
HPCL Vizag 8
BPCL Mumbai 7
Production of Natural Gas
State/Basin (Million Cubic Meters)
Mumbai High 16567
Gujarat 3294
Andhra,Telangana 1525
Assam/Nagaland 2526
Tamil Nadu 1130
The total consumption of petroleum products in 2000-01 was about 99.6 million tonnes while indigenous production was only 32.43 million tonnes.
India produces only one-third of its total requirements.The country depends heavily on imports.
During 1998-99, 39.81 million tonnes of crude petroleum and 18.09 million tonnes of petroleum products were imported from Russia, Iran and other West Asian countries.
Petroleum Refining:
With increasing crude production, refining capacity of the country increased spectacularly.
At present, there are eighteen petroleum refineries in the country, 16 in public sector, one in joint sector and one in private sector.
Total refining capacity of these refineries in 2002 was 112.64 million tonnes per annum.
Public sector refineries are locatred at Guwahati, Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Digboi, Pnaipat, Chennai, Nartmanam, Bongaigaon, Mumbai (HPCL), Vishakha patnam, Mumbai (BPCL), Kochi, Numaligarh (Assam) and Tatipaka(ONGC).
Natural Gas:
Natural gas is emerging as an important source of commercial energy.
It is found in association with petroleum The recoverable reserves of natural gas (1 april 2001) are estmated at
638
billion cubic metres.
Production of natural gas in
2002-03
was
29.977
billion cubic metres. Gas Authority of India Limited(GAIL) was incorporated in 1984 for processing, transporting, distributing, and marketing of natural gas.
Presently it operates over
4200
km of pipelines in the country and supplies power and to fertiliser sector for production of over
10 million
tonnes of urea.
It supplies gas to about
500
industrial units located in different parts of the country.
METALLIC MINERALS
Iron Ore:
India is very comfortably placed with regard to high grade iron ore. Most of the deposits are of haematite and magnetite grade.
Occurrences of limonite and siderate ores are also found Total recoverable reservers of iron ore are about 10,052, million tonnes of heamatite and 3,408 million tonnes of magnetite.
* Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25% of the total reserves
of iron ore in India.
* High grade ore deposits in Karnataka are in Kemmangudi in (in Bbabudan hills) and Sandur & HOspet (Bellary district)
India's richest haematite deposits are located in Barbil Koira valley in Orissa .
The Bailadila mine is the largest mechanised mine in Asia from where iron ore is exported to Japan through Vishakhapatnam , Most of Goa's iron ore is exported to Japan as well .
India is the fifth largest exporter or iron ore in the world .
Japan is the biggest buyer of India iron ore accounting for about three -fourth of our total exports .
Varieties of Fe Ore
Magnetic - the best quality of fe-contains 72% pure Fe
Haematite - contains 60 to 70 % pure Fe
Limonite - contains 40 to 60 % pure Fe
Siderite contains 40 to 50 % pure Fe
Chromite
Chromite is used in metallurgical , refractory and chemical industries , total reserves of chromite are estimated at
184 million tonnes consisting of 105 million tonnes in sittu reserves and about 79 million tonnes as conditional resources .
Sukinda area of this district has the largest reserves of high grade chromite .
Orissa alone accounts for about 98 per cent f recoverable reserves .
Copper
Copper is extensively used in manufacturing of electrical cables , wires and machinery because of being good conductor of electricity .
Total recoverable reserves of copper ore in the country are
537.86 million tonnes in 2000 .
, it is equivalent to
5.30 million tonnes of metal content
.
Major copper ore deposits are in singhbhum district of JharKhand , Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh , and Jhunjhunu and Alwar district of Rajasthan .
Hindustan Copper Limited
( HCL ) a public sector enterprise , is the sole producer of primary copper in the country .
Zinc and Lead
Industrial significance of these minerals is very high , Zinc is mainly used in tyre industry .
Lead-Zinc reserves occur in Rajasthan , Guajarat , Maharashtra , West Bengal , Orissa , Uttar Pradesh , Andhra Pradesh , Meghalaya , madhya Pradesh , Tamil Nadu and Sikkim .
Almost all zinc is producced from the mines of Rajasthan , which also produced more than 80 per cent of lead concentrates .
Orissa ( 10.7 per cent
) and Andhra adesh (
8.2 per cent
) are other producers lead-zinc ore is also produced in Sikkim .
Hindustan Zine Limited ( HZL )
has the responsibility of mining and smelting of lead-zinc ores .
Manganese
Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of non-abrasive and non-corrosive steel and ferro manganese alloy .
Manganese deposits are found in almost all geological systems , however , more than
90 per cent
of them are contained in Gondite and Kodurite series , of the Dharwar system .
Important mines are located in Kendujhar and Sundargarh districts of Orissa .
Gold
Quartz veins in the Dharwar schists contains most of the country's reserves of gold ore , it is called ''
lode deposit
'' .
Gold is also obtained from sands of rivers , which is knows as ''
placer deposits
'' ,
there are three important goldfields in the country , namely , Kolar Gold Field , Kolar district , Hutti Gold Fields in Raichur district ( both in Karnataka ) , and Ramagiri Gold field in anantpur district ( Andhra Pradesh )
.
More than
70 per cent
of gold is produced from the mines of Karnataka and nearly one-tenth from Andhra Pradesh .
Bauxite
India is self sufficient in baxuite , the chief raw material for the manufacture of aluminium , Bauxite deposits are mostly associated with laterite , and occur as blankets or as capping on the high plateaus in peninular India .
More than half of the reservesare confined in Orissa and nearly one-fifth in Andhra Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Maharashtra , Gujarat and Jharkhand also have large deposits of bauxite .
Principle producers are Koraput and Sundargarh districts of Orissa , Gumla .
Non-Metallic Minerals
India has deposits of several non-metallic minerals and production of these minerals increased with the increasing pace of industrialisation in the country .
These minerals are used as raw materials , as flux minerals and as refractory minerals .
Limestone alone accounts for
two-thirds
of the total value of minerals of this group .
Phosphorite , kaolin , gypsum and magnesite are also significant non-metallic minerals .
Lime Stone
Limestone is a key raw material for construction , chemical and metallurgical industries , large deposits of limestone are available in the country
Major reserves of Limestone are found in the Cadapa , Vindhyan and Cretaceous formations and are widely distributed .
major producers are Satna , Jaapur , Katni , Rewa , Damoh , Mandsaur , and Morena districts ofMadhya Pradesh .
Share of States in Bauxite Production ( 2004 - 05 )
State ( % share )
Orissa 40.59
Gujarat 20.10
Dolomite
Deposits of dolomite are present in almost all parts of the country , total recoverable reserves of all grades of dolomite are
4387 million tonnes
.
About
90 per cent
of reserves are distributed in Madhya Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Orissa , Gujarat , karnataka , West Bengal , uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra .
Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand are also major producers of dolomite , Principal producing districts are sundargarh in Orissa ; Jhabua , Balaghat and Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh ; Bilaspur , Janigir and Durg in Chhattisgarh , Nagpur in Maharshtra and Mizapur in Uttar Pradesh .
States Share in Limestone Reserves (2004 -2005 )
State ( % share )
Andhra Pradesh 17.71
Rajasthan 15.60
States share in dolomite Production ( 2004 - 2005 )
State ( % share )
Orissa 29.45
Chhattisgarh 26.39
Phosphate Minerals
These are used mainly for manufacturing of phosphatic fertilisers , phosphorite are estimated at
142.63 million tonnes
.
Udaipur in Rajasthan , Dehradun in Uttaranchal , Jhabua and Chhatarpur in Mdhya Pradesh and Lalitpur in Uttar Pradesh are major phosphorite producing districts .
Commercial deposits of apatite are reported from West Bengal , Jharkhand , Andhra Pradesh , Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan .
Mica
The three Major types of mica found in India are :
Mucovite , Phlogopite and Biotite
.
The total in situ reserves of mica are placed at
59 , 065 tonnes
out of which
Andhra Pradesh has 420, 626 tonnes
,
Rajasthan has 2006 tonnes .
About 95 % of India 's mica is found in just three states
Andhra Pradesh , Rajasthan and Jharkhand .
Most of the mica exports are routed through the ports or Kolkata and Vishakhapatnam .
Other Non-Metallic Minerals
Among the other non-metallic minerals produced in the country , kao , clays , gyps um , magnesite , mica , baryttes felspar and ochre are significant in terms of value .
Total recoverable reserves of Kaolin are about 1042 million tonnes .
out of this
,
345 thousand tonnes

are of surgical/ plaster grade and
39 million tonnes

of fertiliser / pottery grade
.
Major producers of gypsum are Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir , tamil Nadu and Gujarat also produces some gypsum was
324.7 thousand tonnes in 2000 - 2001 .
States and Their Share in Mica production( 2004 - 2005 )
State ( % ) share
Andhra Pradesh 97.36
Rajasthan 1.98
Jharkhand 0.59
Bihar 0.07
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