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Boreal Forest Survival Guide
Transcript of Boreal Forest Survival Guide
This survival guide will show you how to survive in the Boreal forest. It will teach you how to build a shelter, start a fire, cook food and it will tell you what kind of items you will need to bring with you. Using this survival guide will help you survive in the Boreal Forest.
Introduction - Slide 3
Backpack Items - Slide 4-21
Shelter - Slide 22-38
Water - Slide 39-57
Food- Slide 58- 80
Hypothermia- Slide 81- 85
Map of the region- Slide 86- 87
Clothing- Slide 88-89
Basic First Aid Tips- Slide 90- 95
Fire- Slide 96- 102
Table of Contents
Boreal Forest Survival Guide
6 Items you find in the wilderness
1. Canteen- Uses: Store water, Keep water clean and accessible
2. Sleeping Bag- Uses: Warmth and Comfort
3. Camp Axe- Uses: Protection, Tool and Access to wood
4. Energy Bars- Uses: Food and Energy
5. GPS- Uses: Location, Know where you are/sources
6. First Aid Kit- Uses: Healing Injuries and Medicine
7. Lighter- Uses: Fire, Warmth, Where you can cook food
8. Lighter Fuel- Uses: Refill lighter fuel
9. Rain Suit/ Poncho- Uses: To keep you dry from the rain and a material for a shelter
10. Pot- Uses: Purifying water, Cooking food and for digging holes for a Solar Water Still
1. Wood- Uses: Can craft weapons and tools, fire and a material for shelter
Different ways of building a Shelters:
1. Lean to shelter
Step 1: Search for a large branch and lean one end onto a tree.
Step 2: Place smaller branches at 45 degree angles along the length of the large branch.
Step 3: Cover the entire structure with leaves and vegetation.
2. Dry Grass- Uses: Help build a fire
3. Fresh Water- Uses: Hydration
4. Tree Branches- Uses: Help build shelter
and can also be used as a rope
5. Moss- Uses: Used like a bandage
Where to find and build a shelter:
• An open field
• Near a lake or a river
• Where there are trees
• High ground
• Possibly in a cave
3. A based shelter
1. Start by searching for a tree with forked branches that is 3 to 4 feet above the base of the trunk. Break any other branches that may hurt you or might hamper the assembly of your shelter.
2. You'll need to find a fallen tree, that’s about 12 to 15 feet long to be your ridge pole. Place this tree in to the split of the support tree so that you can make a 30-degree angle among the pole and the land. You can use a loose tree that happens to be at a 30 degree angle to the ground or lay a firm ridge pole against a 3 to 4 foot high end.
3. As with the lean-to, lay support poles crosswise the ridge pole. This time, you'll be arranging them on the two sides and at a 60 degree angle to the ground. Support poles need to be long enough to stretch above the ridge pole and should be fixed about 1 to 1 1/2 feet apart.
4. Crisscross miniature branches into the support poles.
5. Cloak the structure with grass, moss, and leaves. Start covering the roof from the bottom and overlap the materials. Doing so will prevent rain from coming in to the shelter.
Note that you could make the high part of the shelter higher up off the ground, but you will then need a longer ridge pole to maintain the 30 degree angle. A steeper angle will result in added exposure to rain and wind.
2. One man shelter
1.Take a rope or a tree branch and tie it to a tree trunk.
2.Take a sheet of cloth or a poncho/raincoat and put it on top of the rope.
Note:This shelter is little and tiny but it does have wind protection and it protects you from the snow when it is winter and it also will keep you warm.
It is pretty easy to build and it is worth while making for a small shelter.
Name: Chanterelle Mushroom- Not Poisonous
Description: It is orange or yellow, meaty and
funnel-shaped,.You will be able to eat this mushroom.
Name: Wild Asparagus- Not
Description: Asparagus are green in color,
very thin and has a bushy top.
This food item is edible
Any stream or river with running water will be a good source, but keep in mind that just because it looks clean does not mean that it is. You will need to boil the water to kill any bacteria before drinking it. If you have a tin/aluminum can, this will be an effective container to boil water over a fire.
Name: Yew Berries- Poisnous
If you come across a lake, this is a great resource for water. You should boil this water also in order to avoid becoming sick from bacteria.
Description: Red or blue berries on evergreen shrub with soft bright green needles; if you must eat for survival just the fruit of the yew but never the seeds; soft red capsules with a hard green stone in the center; eating more than three yew berries can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, difficulty in breathing, and changes in heart rate
If it rains, be sure to set out any containers you have to catch falling water. Any large leaves can provide an effective surface for catching rain and funneling it into a container.
Name: Holly Berries- Poisonous
Description: Hard, red berries that grow on deciduous or evergreen shrubs (these shrubs can grow to be a tree); leaves are stiff with sharp points and may be edged with white; eating more than 3 holly berries can cause severe and prolonged nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, as well as drowsiness
Solar Water still:
If any of these are not available for you and you have a sheet of plastic then you can make solar water will.
Create a Solar Water Still:
Step 1: Dig a hole where you want your solar water will to be.
Note: make sure where you’re building your solar water will have a clear surrounding
Step 2: Place any container you have in the center of your hole.
Step 3: Fill the gaps surrounding the container with anything wet, such as leaves.
Step 4: Place your plastic sheet over the hole and hold it in place
Step 5: Place one small rock in the center of the plastic, just over the container.
Step 6: Condensation will occur on the underside of the plastic and run down to the center. It will drip into the container filling it with condense drinking water.
Name: Honeysuckkle- Not Poisonous
Description: Woody climbing vine that produces sweetly fragrant white or yellow flowers; suck the honey from the flowers in the spring; in fall there are red or orange berries; Neither the flowers nor the berries are reported to be poisonous
Where and how to get water
Dehydration is when more water and fluids are exiting the body then entering. If you do not drink water for 8-10 days it means you will die.
-Drink lots of water!
-Make sure you dress appropriately for the right weather and make sure you are not sweating as much as you need to. If it is sunny and hot outside, wear lighter clothes.
-Dehydration can often appear with stomach sickness, like vomiting and diarrhea.
- Drink lots of water before doing something that will make you sweat and tired.
Name: Wild Strawberries- Not
Description: A wild version of the edible strawberry; looks exactly like the strawberry you may find in a grocery store, but the taste is not as sweet; wild strawberries are not poisonous and they can be found in the spring, summer and fall.
Name: Doll's Eyes Berries- Poisonous
Description: Highly poisonous berry which grows on a plant with white flowers. The berry itself is large and white with a black dot/mark, giving it the appearance of eyes.
The common signs and symptoms of dehydration are
-dizziness or being lightheaded
-dry, sticky mouth
- extreme headache
-Producing less urine or darker urine
-sleepiness or tiredness
-few or no tears when crying
-dry, cool skin
-eyes that look sunken into the head
Name: Juniper Berries- Poisonous
Description: Evergreen tree often used in holiday decorations; blue-purple berries have been used in recipes for flavoring; safety of juniper berries as a food item is questionable since abdominal cramps and diarrhea have been reported when large amounts were eaten.
-Drink lots of water, but don’t chug it, you might vomit or get sick.
-Do not keep working, rest for a few minutes.
-If you are sweating a lot, wear fewer clothes, example if you have pants change into shorts.
-When you are eating, make sure to drink water.
Name: Wild Raspberry- Not Poisonous
Description: erect, perennial shrub, 1-2 m tall, stems (canes) upright, biennial, prickly, often with gland-tipped hairs; bark shredding, yellow to cinnamon brown; similar to cultivated raspberry and much larger than the Dwarf Raspberry. The fruit of the Wild Red Raspberry is delicious fresh or in various jams or jellies. As well, a mild tea can be brewed from the leaves. Ripening in July and August.
If you happen to come across banana r plantain trees, you can obtain water. Chop down the tree, leaving about 11 inches of the tree stump. Scoop out the center of the stump so that the hollow is bowl-shaped. Water from the roots will instantly start to fill the hollow. The first three fillings of water will be bitter but following fillings will be refreshing. The stump will supply water for four days. Cover it up to keep insects away.
Some tropical vines can also give you water. Cut a notch in the vine as high as you can grasp, then cut the vine off close to the land. Catch the dropping liquid in a capsule or in your mouth.
Name: Wild Blueberry- Not Poisonous
The easiest way to purify water is to boil it, provided you have a pot, plus a fire or a camp stove. Bring water in a pot over a high heat until you have rolling bubbles, and let them roll for at least five minutes. Then let it cool down before drinking, or you'll badly burn your lips and tongue.
Description: Blueberries hang like grapes.
You can find blueberries in scrubby
Store your water by simply putting your water inside any container you have. If you don’t have a container you can use big leaves.
1. Cut them into six-inch squares
2. Roll each into a cone
3. Fold and hold the end of your cone so water won’t escape
Step 1: Look for 3 branches and a large stone
Step 2: Cut notches in the branches as indicated in the illustration below.
Step 3: Hold up the rock with one hand, while positioning sticks "A" and "C".
Step 4: Once the weight of the rock is resting on "A" and "C", use your free hand to insert and mount the trigger stick "B".
Step 5: Let go and the trap should be balanced and set.
Step 6: When a bird or animal comes along to eat the bait, the trigger stick will trip and the rock will kill with a fatal blow.
The 4-Figure Deadfall Trap:
If you manage to catch a fish, these are the steps on how you are able to prepare.
• Using a pocket knife or a stone knife,
slit the fish up toward the head and away from your hand
• Separate the head by cutting just below the gills.
• Open the fish and pull the head and bones away in one piece.
• The best part of the fish is the gills/cheeks. Make sure to cut the gills, hold the gills meat and swoop around it so you can cut it off.
Gutting a Fish:
Hypothermia is the condition of having a negatively low body temperature, often one that is dangerously low.
Avoid hypothermia by staying away from dehydration, extreme tiredness, cold winds, and wet clothes. Be sure to:
-Dress warmly and in layers.
-Make sure that you’re keeping yourself warm.
-Keep yourself away from wind, rain, and snow. (Avoid these things by wearing clothes that avoid wind and moisture.)
-Eat a snack that gives you high energy and drink a lot of water.
-Do not over use your energy.
-You have to avoid frostbite
-Do not blow on your hands if it gets cold
•Shivering is an early hint of hypothermia, shivering starts mildly, but it will get worse to the point you cannot control your body.
•Loss of sorting. It might start by you not figuring out how to tie your own shoelace and worse stumbling and falling to the ground.
•Minds mixed up
•Apathy (Not taking care of your body).
• Foolish behavior.
- Move somewhere there is a roof over yours head. Move fast because you might pass out any minute. If somebody else is having hypothermia carefully carry them to the shelter.
-Remove any wet clothes you have on . Replace them with dry and warm clothes.
- If you are having hypothermia drink warm water not hot but warm. Only drink it if you are fully conscious. If you are extremely weak you might choke.
-If you are strong enough and able, moderate exercise such as walking will help to generate heat.
-Stay near a fire to keep you warm
-Heat up your neck, armpits and groins
-Wrap your selves around warm blankets or sleeping bags
Map of the Boreal Forest
What to wear:
• wool socks or liner socks ( Winter and Summer)
• Roomy pants that can become shorts if needed (Summer)
• synthetic or silk underwear (Summer and Winter)
• nylon or man made t-shirt (Summer and Winter)
• light, fleece sweater (Summer)
• shell parka or windbreaker (Winter)
• mittens (Winter)
• wool or man made knitted cap or hat or beanie (Winter)
• Shorts (Summer)
• Running Shoes (Summer)
• Thermal (Winter)
• Warm and strong winter boots (Winter)
• Scarf (Winter)
• Warm gloves (Winter)
• Sunglasses (Summer, optional)
What not to wear:
Basic First Aid Tips
Sprains or Strains
Ice the sprain or strain for a few minutes. Wrap it with an elastic compression bandage and keep it elevated when possible.
Dressing a wound:
Before touching the wound clean your hands and put on some gloves
1. Clean the area where the wound is. Use Antiseptic wipes.If the wound is bleeding gently add pressure to it by using sterile gauze pads. Use tape to keep the pad on top of the bleeding wound.
2. Carefully wrap your bandage around the wound and keep it on by using a bandage clip.
Plants can also help soothe and heal minor injuries. Common plantain is a weed that helps stop bleeding . Crush the leaves to a pulp and place it on top of the wound. Use a long strip of material or long grass to hold them in place. Moss is also useful for controlling bleeding.
Where you should build a fire:
-close to fuel source
-located on a non-burnable surface (bare rock is best)
-located away from burnable materials (such as very dry branches -close overhead, or dry grasses nearby)
-convenience of the location (for example, close to your camp)
but not in the way, either -- you don't want to have to navigate
carefully around a fire that is squarely in everyone's way.
-wind direction and speed (wind can blow the fire onto neighboring burnable materials, such as dry brush)
-proximity to a means of extinguishing the fire (such as water)
• Flip Flops
• Skinny Jeans
• Uncomfortable Clothes
• Baggy Clothes
Instructions how to make fire without tools:
Step 1: Find a flexible wood and cut a notch in its center.
Step 2: Put some sticks at one end that you will set alight.
Step 3: Using a firm stick, plow the end up and down this groove to create friction.
Step 4: The tinder will begin to smoke, blow on it to help fuel the fire catching process.
Step 5: When the fire catches, place more tinder and small twigs on the fire to help it grow.
By: Drew and
Blisters are swellings that are caused by something rubbing against your skin. Avoid blisters by wearing comfortable footwear and good thick socks.
Treating A Blister:
Cushion it with a bandage, don't prick it unless you have a sterilized needle.
You will need a lighter, dry grass and some kindling
1. Put the dry grass on the ground and post the kindling around it making a teepee shape around the dry grass. Leave enough space to get your lighter to the dry grass.
2. Light your lighter and set your dry grass on fire.
Once the wood starts burning the flames and the heat will rise.
3. Add small pieces of wood.
If the fire looks stable enough add slightly larger wood.
How to keep fire alive:
To keep your fire alive make sure you throw in some kindling as soon as your fire looks stable.Throw kindling every time you see your fire weaken, but don not wait for your fire to weaken.
How to start a fire
First Aid Kit
Rain Suit/ Poncho
6. Berries- Uses: Food