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Chemical Industries

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Ashmeen Hayer

on 4 December 2015

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Transcript of Chemical Industries

Environment Effect
The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as waste management, land use, water and air pollution
Manufacturing
Processes
What are Gas Plants?
Natural gas is formed from remains of organic marine land organisms
Flammable gas, consisting large amounts of methane and other hydrocarbons, occur naturally underground and used as fuel
Why Natural Gas?
Effects of Environment
Burning natural gas for fuel releases methane into the atmosphere, where it contributes to climate change
What's Methane?
Coal Plants
Gas Plants
Methane
Coal and Gas Plants
Coal Plants
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal
Coal gas contains a variety of gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane
Manufactured gas is artificial gas, which is produced from coal, coal and oil mixtures, or from petroleum.


Manufactured gas can be made by two processes:

carbonization:
conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue
and
gasification:
is the process of producing syngas – a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, and hydrogen gas. Syngas is used in gas turbines to produce electricity
There are severe health effects caused by burning coal
Underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse and gas explosions
Land hazards are mine wall failures and vehicle collisions
Coal is formed from non-marine land organisms
Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a highly efficient form of energy
Natural gas has many advantages over other fuels. It has fewer impurities, is less chemically complex, and its combustion results in less pollution
Efficient energy source, cost effective, reliable, and clean
Methane is a natural gas, and is one of the simplest member of the alkane series of hydrocarbons
Most organic compound on earth
Methane is EVERYWHERE
Methane
Methane (CH4) is a combustion reaction
CH4 + 202 -> CO2 + 2H20
Main component of natural gas
It is a combustion reaction, because methane is
burned
to be used
Has an effect on our water and air
Methane is more than 20 times more effective at trapping in heat than carbon dioxide, making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases contributing to global warming

Effects on Humans
The main health hazard with methane is that it is highly combustible
Mixtures of 5 to 15 percent methane in air can be explosive
No low concentrations has an impact on humans health
Large concentrations of methane in enclosed areas can lead to suffocation as large amounts of methane will lower the amount of available oxygen in the air
The effects of oxygen deficiency are nausea, headaches, dizziness, and unconsciousness
Examples of Natural Gas
The by-products
(a secondary product made in the manufacture something else)
of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and other compounds.
Naturally occuring gases:
- carbon dioxide
- oxygen
- nitrogen
- carbon monoxide
- methane
Flame, Lignite and Anthracite.
Switch to Natural Gas
Become popular in the 1990s
Some coal power plants, such as the 1200 MW Hearn Generating Station, stopped burning coal by switching to natural gas plant
Coal-fired generation put out about twice the amount of carbon dioxide - around 2,000 pounds for every megawatt hour generated
Electricity generated by burning natural gas at 1,100 pounds for every megawatt hour generated
Reduce coal and increase natural gas generation, carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen.
High leak of methane into the atmosphere
CH4
Natural gas-fired plants use a combustion turbine
Turbine is either fuelled with natural gas, syngas or fuel oil
Power Plants
Combustion Turbine
Uses
Fuel
Methane can be used as a gas for ovens, etc.

Liquid methane used for rocket fuel
In a highly refined form, liquid methane is used as a rocket fuel

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for easy storage or transport, than heated into its gas state, through a process called regasification
Greenhouse Gas
It absorbs the sun's heat, warming the atmosphere
Methane comes from wetlands, cows, gas plants, coal mines, etc.
Negative impact on earth's atmosphere
Methane is more complicated once it gets into the atmosphere and that's because it reacts with a lot of different important chemicals
Since 2007, methane levels have been on the rise again.
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