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12.3 Weathering and Soil

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Katelynn Dorn

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of 12.3 Weathering and Soil

12.3 Weathering and Soil
Soil and Climate
determines how weathering occurs in a region
humid, tropical climates- chemical weathering causes thick soils to develop rapidly
laterites
iron and aluminum minerals that do not dissolve easily
A horizon is thin (heavy rain)
lots of vegetation (thin organic layers)
deserts
soil is thin
regolith- chemical weathering
similar to arctic climates
Soil and Climate (cont.)
temperate climates
medium temp. and rainfall
mechanical and chemical weathering
all 3 horizons are thick
2 types of soil in temperate climates:
pedalfer- clay, quartz, iron (areas with >65 cm. rain)
Gulf coast, east of Mississippi
pedocal- has calcium carbonate (areas with <65 cm. rain)
fertile, less acidic
southwest, west of Mississippi
Soil and Topography
steep slopes do not have much topsoil
soil at top and bottom of a slope is thicker
no humus on slope, poor quality soil
lowlands that retain water have thick, wet soils with high concentration of organic matter
fairly flat are with good drainage provides best surface for fertile residual soil
Soil Profile
residual soil- rests on top of parent rock, develops layers over time
transported soil does not have layers
soil profile- cross section of soil layers and bedrock
O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, C horizon
A- topsoil- organic materials, humus, small rock particles
B- subsoil- minerals leached from topsoil, clay
C- bedrock- in earliest stages of weathering
Soil Composition
Regolith
- layer of weathered rock covering earth's surface
bedrock
- solid unweathered rock that lies beneath regolith
soil
- topmost mixture of minerals, water, gases, and remains
humus
- dark organic material
rock material in soil- clay, sand, silt
proportion depends on original parent rock
soils with clay- feldspar (aluminum)
weathered granite/quartz--> sandy soil
currents carry silt and deposit it near riverbanks
transported soil
- weathered mineral grains carried away from parent rock
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