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Transcript of Subculture
Social Control Theory
Ronald Akers is the theorist
He used Operant Conditioning:
This can work both ways of reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is more powerful than negative reinforcement
Clearance rate is 20% which means in 1 out 5 offenses they will get punished
Sykes & Matza Theory
- This is where juveniles hole conventional values but still commit delinquent acts
- Use techniques that neutralization to shield from guilt & to drift back into delinquency and than back into conventional values
1. Denial of Responsibility
2. Denial of Injury
3. Denial of Victim
4. Condemnation of the condemners
5. Appeal to higher loyalties
Subculture - set of values norms and beliefs, differ from dominant culture
Delinquents hold values opposing the dominant culture, interfere w/ the law
Cohen's Delinquency &
Goal: to become part of middle class (different values, norms, and beliefs)
Handicap: lack of educational prep. & inability to delay gratification
Little relation to the teachings (teachers have middle class values also known as middle class measuring rods)
Measuring rods - ambition, responsibility, deferred gratification, courtesy, etc.
Peter, Alexis, Alaina, AJ
This theory tries to answer "Why DON"T juveniles commit delinquent acts."
The strength of an individuals ties to the foundations of society.
People not bonded to the social order are free from constraints to violate the law
Reckless's Containment Theory
Walter Reckless believed both internal and external forces operate when juveniles make decisions to avoid or commit delinquent acts.
Motivating & Restraining Factors
Inner Pressures and Pulls
Outer Pressures and Pulls
Hirschi's Social Control/Social Bonding Theory
People do not typically commit delinquent acts because they fear it will damage their relationships.
1. What are three of the six of the Miller lower-class subculture
A. Excitement, Smartness & Fate
B. Smartness, coolness & Trouble
C. Toughness, Smartness & Looks
D. Fate, Autonomy & Funniness
People do not commit these acts because they are bonded to the larger society.
2. What are the Operant Conditioning Reinforcement
A. Bad & Good
B. Positive & Negative
C. Approving & Opposed
D. Favorable & Dissenting
Elements of the Social Order
3. What type of juvenile gangs always has access to illegitimate opportunity structure?
A. Retreatist Gang
B. Conflict Gang
C. Criminal Gang
Gottfredson & Hirschi's
4. Which of these four is not an element to
social bond ?
E. All of the Above
The tendency to commit crime can be found in the level of self-control
Those who commit delinquent acts have low self-esteem.
Lack of self-control is caused by poor child rearing
It is suggested parents monitor their child's behavior, recognize inappropriate behavior, and punish the inappropriate behavior.
Develop status frustration - don't reach middle class membership
Locate others who struggle in school
Develop norms that actually oppose those of the dominant culture - develop own delinquent subculture
Differential Opportunity Theory
Legitimate opportunity structure
- Education, hard work, quality occupation
Illegitimate opportunity structure
- Criminal enterprises in neighborhoods
- Adult criminal mentors
- Different gangs form depending on access to illegitimate opportunities
Criminal acts with economic motive
No access to IOS
Always have access to illegitimate opportunity structure
Crime is unorganized - committed out of frustration
Possibility of access to IOS
Unable/ unwilling to be successful criminals
Commit petty crimes - sell drugs to support own drug use
Focal Concerns Theory
Examined factors that contribute to gang formation & delinquency
Six values of Lower Class
Trouble - Value of their involvement
Toughness - Physical strength
Smartness - Streetwise
Excitement - Thrill Seeking
Fate - Happens for a reason
Autonomy - Freedom of being alone
Lack of equal access to the means to obtain a goal
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Focuses on the relationship between socialization & delinquency
Analyzes the relationship to delinquency of certain factors
Risk factors increase the likelihood of delinquent behavior
Acts are committed because they have learned the rationalization by peers and parents
Environment plays a role in exposure to why delinquent acts are okay
Criminal Behavior is learned
Not a function to obtain economic success or living in socially disorganized area
Behavior is learned
Strong communication with peers
Occurs mostly in personal groups
Motives = Rational Thought
Favorable v Unfavorable of the law
Excess of definitions of violations
May vary in Frequency, Priority, Intensity
Learned the same way as anything else
Not explained by Needs &Values