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The Industrial Revolution

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Michael Ungar

on 28 November 2017

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

B. Also had an abundance of natural resources (rivers, iron ore, harbors)

C. Politically stable (no turnover in who controlled the gov’t; no wars on home soil)

D. Social factors were less rigid than in other countries

E. Had an empire within which it could require its goods to be sold

D. New machines often needed a source of power,
therefore needed to be located near areas that had coal, water, & iron

E. 100s of workers organized in a factory w/ power
operated equipment could produce much more than 100s of workers hand-spinning at home

F. Mass produced goods also started to become much
cheaper than hand-produced goods.

B. Cottage Industry

1. Merchant would buy the raw goods
from a producer (Ex: wool)

2. Would take it to a rural worker to prepare into yarn

3. Then took it to someone to be woven into cloth

4. Then had someone else to bleach
or dye it, finally gave the final product
(cloth) to the wholesaler or buyer

5. The demand for manufactured goods went up, as did
the diversity of goods that could be made

D. Began to realize that by growing different crops, there was no need to leave a field fallow

E. New crops included clover, turnips, alfalfa,
pod-related crops. These crops did not deplete the fields as much as grains and actually improved productivity by giving off nitrogen & making the soil more porous

E. Life in Traditional Villages

1. Villages were the center of social and political

2. Revolved around church and community

3. Often helped each other
(gave $ to the poor, helped build roads, etc.)

4. Had other supportive people, such as
blacksmiths, shoemakers, weavers, etc.

D. Disadvantages of Traditional Farming

1. Pathways separating plots wasted land

2. Time was wasted by running back and forth from

3. Cattle passed diseases quickly

4. Cattle sometimes destroyed
crops (no fences)

5. Farmers had to be really coordinated (same seed,
same plowing schedules, etc)

Britain had all of the factors of production (resources needed to produce goods and services)


Capital (wealth)

VI. Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution

G. Effects of the Textile Factories

1. Mass produced good were cheaper

2. Britain’s textile industry increased greatly

3. Majority of villagers were
forced to leave to find work
in urban factories

What do you see here? What are the machines doing? What are the workers doing? What is the boy in the machine doing? What might be the advantages of factory cotton spinning over cottage-industry cotton spinning?

C. Effects of Cottage Industry
1. Merchants did not have to buy the equipment, only
had to pay the workers

2. Pace of work was up to the worker

3. Supplemented the farmer’s wages

4. New merchants become very wealthy

What has been the most important invention in your lifetime? (1997—2014)


Changed the entire structure of villages-peasants lost their voice & livelihood and were often forced to work for the landowners

Large landowners greatly increased their power

More food, less people starved, population continued to grow

More children, parents needed more money to support their families, they often moved into town/cities for work.

Workers moved into urban areas,
factories now have a work force

III. Effects of Ag. Revolution

F. Jethro Tull created the seed drill in 1701-the device
implanted seeds into the soil at constant intervals; seed needed to sow a field was reduced by 80 percent

G. Increased amount of food helped the population steadily
increase (no more famine) # helloobesity

H. Happened in England, rather than in the continent of
Europe, because the philosophy of property rights & wage labor

F. Forces for Change

1. Population explosion-in 1700, Britain had 5 ½
million people, by 1800 it was 8-9 million

2. Napoleon’s blockade of England-no more
imported corn, need to be more effective at
home to produce more food

England was organized into farming villages, with each village growing enough food to feed itself.

Fields were often divided into 3 strips, 1 for field for grain (wheat or rye) for bread, one for oats (for the livestock to eat), and 1 was left fallow (so it could regain its nutrients)

No fences, strips were divided among the peasants, and animals grazed on the common pastures.

I. Farming in the Middle Ages

What do you see here? How would you describe how these people are dressed? What are the people doing? How do they seem about their work? What might these people enjoy or not enjoy about their life-style?

A. Textile industry was created to solve the issues of so
many different “cottages” or households working on
one product-wanted to be more efficient

B. New large inventions helped speed up the process,
but could not fit into someone’s home.

C. Each new machine improved
upon the last, but were often expensive

V. Textile Industry & Factory System


Regulation of trade and commerce are key for making a country self-sufficient

British put limits on goods that could be bought/sold by individuals-
Ex: Fish could only be sold on Fridays

Didn’t work because people wanted greater diversity in goods and better access to goods

IV. Cottage Industry & Capitalism

What do you see here? Where is the woman working? What might the woman do with the yarn she has spun? Where might the rest of the family be? What might be some advantages/disadvantages of this lifestyle?

Started with the Enclosure Movement-wealthy landowners start to fence in common fields and claimed them as their own

Wool industry was very profitable, so many used the fields for grazing sheep & other farm animals

Now have control over their own land, free to experiment with new techniques to increase productivity

II. The Agricultural Revolution

Tensions continue between the industrialized nations of Europe and North America and less-develop nations such as those in Africa…

Reason #5

Socialism and communism have increasingly given way to capitalism, causing major global upheavals in places such as Russia and eastern Europe…

Reason #4

Today’s global society depends on transportation & communication that can be traced to the industrial revolution…

Reason #2

Why Study?

Industrialized nations such as those in western Europe continue to use low-wage labor from less-industrialized nations…

Reason #3

All nations face problems of industrialization such as:
air & water pollution, acid rain,
& crowded cities

Reason #1

Source: TCI & Modern World History Book

“Beginnings of Industrialization”

Chapter 9, Section 1






Mr. Smith's house
The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
What are the three types of countries? Where do you think most of the developed countries are located? Why?



The Industrial Revolution increased the gap between poor and rich nations

Industrialized countries gained power,
wealth, markets for goods and colonies

Imperialism became a major policy
(need markets and raw materials)

Impact of Industrialization

America has great resources

War of 1812 forced U.S. to produce its own goods

Britain even forbid its engineers, mechanics and toolmakers from leaving the country

Industrial Development in the U.S.

Chapter 9 – Section 3

Industrialization Spreads

Industrial in US Cont….

Industrialization mainly in Northeast

Us still mainly agricultural country

After Civil War (1861-1865), boom of new inventions (light bulb & telephone), use of resources and railroads hit


Industrial Revolution starts in Great Britain because of their great location and resources but…
Soon other countries with similar conditions begin to revolutionize as well

Main Idea: Industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts of the world

Why It Matters: The I.R. set the stage for the growth of modern cities and a global economy

Lets Get Started!

CAPITAL (money) was needed to build these factories and railroads
- to purchase industrial equipment

Companies sold STOCKS and became part of CORPORATIONS:

Corporations: Business owned by stockholders who share profits but not responsible for debts

Standard Oil & Carnegie Steel Company

Public education and the prison system ranked among the highest on the list of reforms

By 1850s many states were starting
public school systems

Late 1800s most of Western Europe offered free public schooling

Prison Life in the early 1800's

Why might women abolitionists have headed
the movement for women’s rights?

Began as early as 1848 in the United States

1888 - International Council for Women

Women formed trade unions where
they dominated

Women ran settlement houses
– community centers that served poor
residents of slum neighborhoods

Reasons for Women’s Rights Reform Movements

Industrialization is a mixed blessing for women:

-Women factory workers made more
money than women that stayed at home

-Women factory workers made 1/3 as much as men

- What is the salary difference today?

Fight for Women’s Rights

Early 1800s – movement to end slavery and fulfill promise of Declaration of Independence

1865 – Union wins the Civil war and slavery ends

1873 – slavery ends in Puerto Rico

1886 – Spain abolishes slavery in Cuba

1888 – slavery ends in Brazil

Slavery in the United States

William Wilberforce led the fight to
end slavery in the British Empire

1807 – Parliament passes bill to
end slavery in British West Indies

1833 – completely abolished slavery in British Empire

The Abolition of Slavery

Read pg 304 – 305 “Labor Unions and Reform Laws” and create a timeline in your notes

Include: date, name of act, significance

Reform Laws Timeline

Skilled workers led the way

In the beginning unions helped the
lower middle class more than the poor

Slow to grow because governments saw
unions as a threat to social order and stability

Combination Acts of 1799 & 1800 outlawed
unions (parliament repealed in 1824)

Long hours, dirty and dangerous working conditions, and threat of being laid off

Unions were volunteer labor associations that engaged in collective bargaining for better conditions and higher pay

Strike or refuse to work if factory owners refused union demands

Labor Unions & Reform Laws

1848 & 1849 – widespread revolt
throughout Europe

1900s – Marxism inspired revolutionaries
Lenin (Russia), Mao Zedong (China), Fidel Castro (Cuba)

The Communist Manifesto

Opposite of laissez-faire economics

Utilitarian beliefs—decisions should be made based on usefulness (the best decision is the one that helps the most people)—Jeremy Bentham

Socialism—tools of production are owned by the public

—operated for the good of all

The government should “plan” the economy instead of letting it run itself

Rise of Socialism

Laissez-faire economics “leave it alone”
-don’t interfere with the economy

Adam Smith—Wrote "The Wealth of Nations"

—Government should not interfere
=a free economy

Capitalism—production is privately owned and investments are done to make profits

Philosophers of Industrialization

Chapter 9, Section 4

Reforming the Industrial World

Prison Reform

1831 – Alexis de Tocqueville contrasted brutal prison conditions in America with “extended liberty” of American Society

Reforms Spread

“If we do not prepare children to become good citizens…if we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction.”

Horace Mann

Reasons for ending slavery:

1. Morally against slavery

2. Slave labor was an economic threat

3. Cheap labor instead of slave labor

Reasons to Abolish Slavery
in British Empire

Early 1800s – beginning of skilled worker membership in unions

1886 – American Federation of Labor (AFL)
- formed by Samuel Gompers

AFL strikes = higher wages and shorter hours

Raising wages and improved working conditions

1875 – won the right to strike and picket peacefully

-Built up a membership of 1 million people

British and American Unions

In most cases Capitalism did not destroy itself but in fact strengthened national economies

He believed that economic forces dominated societies
-What about Religion, nationalism, ethnic loyalties and desire for democratic reform?

The gap between the rich and the poor did not widen as predicted

How was Marx Wrong?

Capitalism would eventually destroy itself

Factories would drive small artisans our of business
Large proletariat would revolt and seize factories
“dictatorship of the proletariat”
Classless society (pure communism)

The Future According to Marx

The Communist Manifesto (1848)
-Class struggle

Bourgeoisie (factory owners) "haves"
and proletariat (workers) "have nots"

Predicted that workers would overthrow the owners

Marxism: Radical Socialism

What are some ways to run a business? In your opinion, what is the best way to run a business?
What are some examples of an economic system? What system do we use here in the U.S.?


“The Industrial Revolution resulted in the most
profound, far-reaching changes in the history of
humanity. And its influence continues to sweep
through our lives today. ”

25 % of children died before their first birthday
25% of those children died before their tenth birthday
Goods can now be transported
in mass quantities
Britain had natural resources
Ex. iron ore and coal

Couldn’t really be harnessed without ability to transport them easily
• Businessmen pooled resources and held a contest in 1829 who could build best locomotive to carry loads between cities of Manchester and Liverpool.
• The Rocket hauled 13 tons at 24 miles per hour which was unheard of at the time

Effects of the Rail Road

1. Railroads create jobs and opportunities for
economic growth

The story goes that the first locomotive was developed because of a bet between two rich Englishmen. If one could create a machine that could haul ten tons of iron
for 10 miles.
2. Spurs industrial growth with cheaply
transporting goods and materials
3. Boosts agriculture and fishing industries by easily transporting products to new markets.
4. Traveling is easier, people begin to
move or visit areas further from home.
Chapter 9
Section 2


- At first industrialization caused
Huge job markets
Human Suffering
Horrible living and working conditions
Air and water pollution
Child labor
Class tension

Industrialization will eventually lead to a better quality life for most people.

People could make more money by working in a factory than by farming.

People could now...
Heat their homes
Eat better foods
Wear better clothing

People start moving to cities for work


# of Cities (100,000+) went from 22 47

Most urban areas doubled if not quadrupaled in population

Urbanization - City building and the
movement of people to cities
Cities sprang up near coal deposits or rivers

Population exploded

London is now the largest city in Europe
- 2x larger than Paris

Manchesters population went from 45,000 to 300,000 in 90 years.

What issues could arise from such a rapid population growth?

Poor living conditions
Issues: Living conditions (SLUMS)

Inadequate housing
Poor hygiene
No sewage or garbage removal --went into the River Thames
Poor quality water (Disease spreads)
Issues: Working conditions

Working conditions exceptionally poor
Wages low due to labor supply.
Most worked 14 hour days with no days off
Life span of typical factory worker 17 years shorter than farmer during time period (38).
Miners life expectancy 10 years less than that
Child labor prevalent.
Class tension:

• Ultimately industrialization leads to more class tension within European societies

Traditionally you had clergy, nobility, everyone else
Nobles and hereditary landowners were very important, but middle class gets larger

– groups like skilled workers, engineers,
doctors, managers•

New social group is working class

– Their lives remain misserable with very little rights
or say. (abused)

During the Renaissance you get an emergence of middle class

During industrialization clergy no longer of much importance, but the middle class were now the wealthy people and were pretty much running everything.
Middle Class =
These are the slums
What do we think of when we hear
"The Industrial Revolution?"
Is it mainly a negative outlook?
What are some of the
positive effects of the
Industrial Revolution?
Positive effects of the I.R.
Created jobs
Increased nations wealth
Fostered technological growth and inventions
Increase in the production of goods
Hope for people to improve their lives
Other positive outcomes of the I.R. would be...
Healthier diets
Better housing
Cheaper, massed produced clothing
Middle and Upper class were prospering from the beginning of the Industrial revolution.

Need for clerical and
professional personnel

- Educational opportunities is increased
Eventually workers too will see a gradual improvement in
- Wages
- Work hours
- Working conditions

This is because of the creation of ______________ ______________
Long term effects
People living in industrialized counties can now afford consumer goods (luxeries).
Living and working conditions improved.
Tax revenue is increased which allows the local and Federal Governments to to invest in public projects
- raises standards of living for urban areas
1789, Samuel Slater able to sneak out of Britain and travels to the US and creates the spinning machine

1813, Francis Cabot Lowell revolutionized US textile by mechanizing every stage of cloth making.

“Workers of the world…
In 1848, Europe was swept by a wave of liberal revolutions.

END of the conservative order established by Congress of Vienna
Women flocked to work in these mills
(gave them independence)
Only other jobs available would have
most likely been as a servant.
Rust Belt
Industrialization spreads through Continental Europe.

Industry reached the rest of Europe much
like how industry reached the U.S.
- British businessmen escaped from
the U.K. and started production in other country's in Europe in the early to mid 1800's

- Some countries see the effects of industry more quickly than others due to having better resources and having better geography to deal with
England leads imperialism
But soon other countries join them
- Need for raw materials to
supply factories and to create new markets for the products they were producing

(selling goods to non-industrialized nations)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B Anthony
Politician and education reformist
o In ideal communist state, government owns all property and everyone exactly equal

o Also no religion allowed since religion was deemed “opiate of the masses”

o Thought would catch on first in England or Germany due to # of factories

o Positive = everyone has a job and some wealth

o Negative – no motivation to work hard, no progress
o Socialism

• Government owns the large industries and runs them for the benefit of the people
Ex: power companies in many countries owned by

• Also has a level of private ownership
• Larger number of social welfare programs designed to help common people
• Positives = get stuff for “free”
• Negatives: Budget problems
• High taxes
• Some of same level of productivity issues as communism
• Communism actually seen as extreme version of socialism
I thought slavery was bad before it was cool
You could go to prison for many reasons in the 1800's
Petty theft (to survive)
Public drunkenness
Mental illness (not a very substantial science at the time)
- Often abused and neglected
Eventually debtors prisons would be closed

Mental institutes would be opened to attempt to give proper care to those in need

Sentenced would be shortened for minor offenses

Prison reform
Full transcript