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The Human Muscular System

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Acacia Catcheside

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of The Human Muscular System

Motor Unit
A motor unit is the combination of a motor neuron and the muscle cell it innervates.
Muscle Stimulus
A muscle will only contract when they reach a minimal level of intensity called the threshold stimulus.
Structure of Skeletal Muscle

3 Parts of Major Skeletal Muscle:
-Origin
-Insertion
-Body

Made up of skeletal muscle cells and connective tissue

Extend from bone to bone with joint in between

Muscles attach to bone by tendons

Bursae - lubracation for muscles to slide over bones more easily
Types of Skeletal
Muscle Contractions
1. Twitch - quick, jerky response
2. Tetanic - more sustained and steady
The Human Muscular System
Muscle Tissue
3 major types of muscle tissue:
Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Movement
Posture
Heat Production
Fatigue
Sternocleidomastoid
Iliopoas
Adductor Muscles
Quadriceps
Tibialis Anterior
Gastrocnemius
Fibularis Longus
Once activated, each fiber will always respond "all or none."
Trapezius
Pectoralis Major
Deltoid
Bicep Brachii
Brachialis
Rectus Abdominis
External Oblique
Muscle Movements by Contractions
Flexion
(Bending)
Extension
(Straightening)
Abduction
(moving away from midline)
Adduction
(moving towards
midline)
Inversion
(towards midline)
Eversion
(away from midline)
Dorsiflexion
(toe up)
Plantar Flexion
(toe down)
Rotation
Effects of Muscles
Exercise improves muscle tone and posture
Heart and Lungs are more efficient
Reduces fatigue
Too much? Too little?
Lean Muscles
vs. Bulky
Cardio
Lean Muscles
Strong Heart
Strength Training
Bigger Muscles
Objectives
Structure
Function
Stimulation
Types of Skeletal Muscle
Effects of Exercise
Movements produced by contractions
Muscle Names
Disorders
3. Isotonic - produces movement
4. Isometric - increases tension
Latissimus Dorsi
Tricep Brachii
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Cardiac-composes the bulk of the heart and helps it to pumps blood.
Smooth-forms blood vessel walls and hollow internal organs, helps pump liquids though these vessels and organs.
Skeletal-attaches to bone
Muscle Disorders
4 Types of Disorders
Muscle Injury
1. Strain -Tearing of Muscle Fibers

2. Sprain -ligament damage
3. Cramps - Muscle Spasms
4. Crush Injuries - Trauma to Skeletal Muscle
5. Stress Induced Muscle Tension - Headaches or Backache
Muscle Infections
Causes:
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
ie. Flu: Muscle pain and stiffness
Polio: (Viral infection of nerves controls muscle movement) - can lead to paralysis and death
Muscular Dystrophy
Genetic Disorders
Muscle replaced by fatty tissue
ie. Duchenne
X-linked (mostly in boys)
Rapid progression of weakness and atrophy
Myasthenia Gravis
Autoimmune Muscle Disease
Characterized:
Weakness
Chronic Fatigue
Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy
Major and Microscopic
Microscopic
Muscle fibers grouped into bundles
Fiber contains thick and thin myofilaments
Basic functional unit is called a sarcomere
Sarcomere is seperated by dark bands (Z-lines)
Facial Muscles
References

Schub, T., & Buckley, L. (2013). Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
Patton, K., & Thibodeau, G. (2014). The Human Body
X-Linked disorder
Mostly found in males
Mutation of dystrophin gene on band Xp21
Dystrophin is what protects and stabilizes muscle fibers
Without sufficient dystrophin:
variation of sizes and loss of muscle fibers
muscle is replaced with connective tissue
1 out of 3500 males born with DMD
Signs & Symptoms
Begin from ages 2-6
Symmetrical muscle atrophy
Weakness
Begins proximally and progresses distal
Grower's Sign
Waddle
Hard time with stairs
Treament
There is no cure
Treatments are to control symptoms
Manage/Control
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Scoliosis
Dysphagia
Goal
Preserve Independence
Functional abilites
Medications
No actual meds
Glucocorticoid - stablize progression & function, put off wheel chair
Creatine - improve quality of health
Therapy
Physical Therapy
Speech Therapy
Steriod Therapy
Progression
Ankle plantar flexor
Obesity
Low IQ
Bladder dysfunction
Delayed speech
Outcomes
Walking halts ~ 12 years old

Death between 20-25
(respiratory/cardiac failure)
Acacia & Amy
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