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The French Revolution - Time Line
Transcript of The French Revolution - Time Line
Time Line By: Liam Cullinan 10A France in Famine - 1780's Years of bad harvest and weather decimate France's agriculture. Widespread famine (for the 3rd estate at least) ensues as the price of bread skyrockets. The 1st and 2nd Estates, however seem unaffected. France Sinks into Incredible Debt - 1770's - 1780's While France was already in debt, Louis the XVI's deplorable leadership drove the nation even further into the poor house. His financing of the American Revolution, despite weakening Britain, was practically the straw that broke the camel's back. Now with basically no money left, Louis tried to create a tax for the Nobility, the Noblemen promptly opposed this idea leading to... Louis the XVI Calls the Estates-General - May 5, 1789 The Nobles, angered at the prospect of the King imposing taxes upon them, demanded that the Estates-General be called, the first in 175 years. The 3rd Estate, emboldend by Enilightenment ideals, was eager to change the ways of the government. This was promptly opposed by the King and the 1st and 2nd Estates, but the Bourgeoisie refused to give up. The National Assembly is Born - June 17, 1789 Undeterred by the by the both the King's and the Nobility's opposition, the Third Estate continued to strive for change. Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, a clergyman sympathetic to the 3rd Estate, gave a stunning speech that suggested that the 3rd Estate, made up by the common masses, should decide the laws that govern said common masses as the National Assembly. The 3rd Estate eagerly agreed to this new idea and on June 17, 1789 the National Assembly was born. The Tennis Court Oath - June 20, 1789 Meer days after the National Assembly came in to being, the delegates found themselves locked out of their meeting room. Angered by the action they broke into an indoor tennis court, declaring that they would stay until a new constitution be made. Known as the Tennis Court Oath, it drew in sympathetic Nobles and Clergymen into the National Assembly's ranks; meanwhile King Louis moved his Swiss guard around the Versailles in response. The Storming of the Bastille Rumours went wild in Paris as to the presence of the foreign army, many believing that it was either Louis trying to stop the National Assembly or invaders coming to sack Paris. In repsonse, the people of Paris began to stockpile weapons against this 'attack'. On July 14, the people assaulted the Bastille, hoping to gain access to it's gunpowder stores; it's fall becoming the first 'real' act of Revolution in France The Great Fear Plagues France - July - August, 1789 Like a fire, a wave of senseless panic and fear spread throughout the country side, stirring up Revolutionary action. Many of peasants, beleiving wild rumours of Noble-hired bandits assaulting towns, began to make attacks upon Noble manors and homes, often with nothing more than their farming tools and torches to use as weapons. Noble mansions burned while numerous documents binding the people to Noble rule were destroyed. Parisian Women Storm the Versailles - October, 1789 The rising pirces of bread in Paris sparked outrage amongst the people, the most dramatic of these was when a mob of women marched towards the Versailles. Weilding knives, axes, and anything else they could find, they demanded that the National Assembly take action and supply them with bread. When that failed, they turned their rage towards the King, storming the Versailles and murdering several guards; also demanding that the Royal family return to Paris, to which King Louis complied. The Rights of Man is Born - August, 1789 Three weeks after France's official reformation, the Declaration to the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is officially instated. The document would provide basic rights to all French citizens including "liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression." However these rights did not extend to everyone for Olympe de Gouges' idea, which was a 'declaration of the rights of women', was rejected and later executed as an enemey to the Revolution. Louis the XVI Tries to Escape - June, 1791 With France reduced to a constitutional monarchy, King Louis lost a great deal of his power due to the Revolution. Though the Revolutionaries controlled France, many of King Louis supporters still lived, and at their urgings and those of his advisors, Louis and his family attempted to flee to the Austrian Netherlands. However fate had other plans and just a few scant miles from the border, Louis was discovered and was apprehended before being returned to France under armed guard. King Louis the XVI is Executed - January 21, 1793 Louis the XVI's ill fated escape attempt was the final straw for the people of France. The National Assembly stripped Louis of his title of King and tried him as a commoner, proclaiming him guilty of high treason in what was practically a show trial. On the morn of January 21, 1793, Louis the XVI was executed via decapitation by the infamous device know as the Guillotine. Robespierre, Head of the Comitee of Public Safety - June, 1793 Robespierre, a powerful member of the radical Jacobins group, begins to reform France into a "Republic of Virtue". With his power and influence, Robespierre begins to bring about large changes about the nation including replacing the all twelve months and practically abolishing religeon. Later on, Robespierre becomes leader of the Committee of Public Safety, effectivly making him a tyrant in all but name and also giving him the means to wipe out all he considers a threat to France and/or himself. The Reign of Terror - 1793-1794 Robespierre effectivly ruled France as a dictator and had anyone he saw as a threat to either himself or the revolution be executed as an enemy of the Revolution. It is said that almost 40,000 people were murdered under Robespierre's orders, some of the time for things that can't even be considered rebelious like complaining over food prices. Worst was that the majority of those executed were of the 3rd Estate, who the Revolution was originally for. Robespierre is Executed - July 28, 1794 Fearing both for their lives and those of their friends and family, several delegates in the National Convention demanded that Robespierre be arrested, tired, and executed. Robespierre was taken into custody and in the days awaiting his execution, he attempted to commit suicide by gunshot but only managed to shatter his jaw. Unable to speak and in pain, Robespierre was marched towards the National Razor where his Reign of Terror ended with him suffering the same fate he condemned so many others with. Picture Sources Lady Liberty - www.treehugger.com/revolution-franchaise.jpg
Famine - http://premodeconhist.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/famine.jpg
Louis XVI (Poverty) - http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Louis_XIV_of_France.jpg/300px-Louis_XIV_of_France.jpg
Peasants - http://califia.us/Folklore/peasant_family.jpg
Estates General - http://burell9history.wikispaces.com/file/view/estatesgenral.jpg/30319698/estatesgenral.jpg
National Assembly - http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/french-revolution-4.jpg
Tennis Court Oath - http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/national_assembly.jpg/31581847/national_assembly.jpg
Assault on the Bastille - http://www.providingnews.com/wp-content/uploads/new/2010/07/storming-of-the-bastille.jpg
The Great Fear - http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/a16df1262fc52a6ae85628c5c6cee53d.jpg
Women mob the Versailles - http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/March_of_Versailles.jpg/99841279/March_of_Versailles.jpg
Rights of Man - http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/120348~French-Declaration-of-the-Rights-of-Man-and-the-Citizen-1789-Posters.jpg/43618105/120348~French-Declaration-of-the-Rights-of-Man-and-the-Citizen-1789-Posters.jpg
Louis returned - http://bastille-day.com/media/Louis-XVI-Returns-from-Varennes.jpg
Louis executed - http://webpub.allegheny.edu/employee/a/acarr/anjouhistory/pix/mkingexecution.jpg
Committee of Public Saftey - http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/thisday/uploaded_images/Comite_de_Salut_Public-757909.jpg
Reign of Terror - http://www.digischool.nl/kleioscoop/guillotine.jpg
Robespierre Executed - http://static.desktopnexus.com/thumbnails/193987-bigthumbnail.jpg