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Gender Mainstreaming Strategies of the African Union. Focusing on Women’s Political Empowerment

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Judit Bagi

on 23 September 2015

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Transcript of Gender Mainstreaming Strategies of the African Union. Focusing on Women’s Political Empowerment

Gender Mainstreaming Strategies of the African Union. Focusing on Women’s Political Empowerment
PhD Student, Interdisciplinary Doctoral School, Political Science Programme, University of Pécs, E-mail: bagi.judit@pte.hu
1st Central European African Studies Conference (CEASC)
14 – 16 May, 2014, Pilsen
Judit Bagi
The Structure of the Presentation
1. Gender Mainstreaming
2. Why is gender mainstreaming necessary in Africa?
3. Gender Mainstreaming Strategy of the African Union
4. Summary

Gender Mainstreaming

is not a goal in itself but a strategy to achieve equality between women and men. It is used to integrate gender concerns into all policies and programmes (
European Institute for Gender Equality
1948 United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1975 International Women’s Year
1975 first World Conference on Women in Mexico City
1979 the General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) ’ bill of rights for women’
1980 World Conference on Women in Copenhagen
1985 World Conference on Women in Nairobi
1995 World Conference on Women in Beijing


"…the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels."
Beijing Platform for Action
2000 Millennium Development Goals
3. promote gender equality and empowering women
2010 UN Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
Inter-Parliamentary Union: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm (2014)

African Union
established in 2001 in
Addis Ababa
, Ethiopia
has 54 member states (Morocco outsider)
replaced the
Organisation of African Unity
, which was established in 1963
celebrating the
African independence
from the colonial rule and fostering independence among the African countries

Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
Chairperson of the African Union Commission 2012-
Gender Mainstreaming Strategy of the African Union
(Martin, 2013: 11-16)

1. The constitutional framework
2. The legal framework
3. The reporting framework
4. The policy framework
5. The implementation framework
6. Financing mechanism (the Found for African Women

The constitutional and legal framework
1995 African Platform for Action on Women (aimed to put the Beijing platforms into practise in Africa)
2003 African
Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa
States’ Parties shall take specific positive action to promote participative governance and the equal participation of women:
a) women can participate without any discrimination in all elections;
b) women are represented equally at all levels with men in all electoral processes;
c) women are equal partners with men at all levels of development and implementation of State policies and development programmes.

The reporting framework

Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality

in Africa (SDGEA):
5th point says, the African Union should expand and promote the gender parity principle
the chairperson of the AU Commission should submit an
annual report
on the progress regarding the implementation of the declaration at national and regional levels
Specialised Technical Committee on Gender and Women’s Empowerment meetings

The implementation framework
2005 Dakar:
First African Union Conference of Ministers Responsible for Women and Gender
(implementation framework of the SDGEA)
important targets set up concerning women’s political participation:
50% female representation in all Organs of the African Union by 2015
50% female representation in the Regional Economic Communities and National governments of countries of the African Union by 2015
50% female representation in parliament and the judiciaries by 2015
African Women’s Decade 2010-2020

The policy framework:
2010 The African Union Gender Policy and Action Plan
Financing mechanism
: 2011 the Found for African Women
70 percent of the member states have gender policies
and yet few of them have been implemented (Martin 2013: 24)

to make gender mainstreaming strategies more effective
The Commission should set up its follow-up and monitoring role
The European Union and the United Nation should promote sustainability (in connection with gender mainstreaming) in Africa
Civil Society Organisations are essentials partners in gender mainstreaming. They have the capacity to mobilise the public. The UN, the EU and also the AU should cooperate more with them
the AU and EU partnership should more actively promote women’s political participation

Sources Include
United Nation. Global Issues. Women. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/women/
The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/plat1.htm#statement
The United Nations (2002): Gender mainstreaming. An Overview. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/pdf/e65237.pdf
African Union. http://www.au.int/
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. http://www.peacewomen.org/assets/file/Resources/NGO/hr_protocoltotheafricancharteronhumanandpeoplesrightsontherightsofwomeninafrica_2003.pdf
Elissa Jobson (2012): African Union chooses first female leader. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jul/16/african-union-first-female-leader
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/
Olga Martin (2013): The African Union’s Mechanisms to Foster Gender Mainstreaming and Ensure Women’s Political Participation and Representation. http://www.idea.int/resources/analysis/the-aus-mechanisms-to-foster-gender-mainstreaming-and-ensure-womens-political-participation.cfm
Women, Gender and Development Directorate African Union Commission. The Road Map for the African Women’s Decade: 2010-2020. http://makeeverywomancount.org/images/stories/documents/AU_Road_map_for_the_AWD_2010.pdf
Why is gender mainstreaming important in Africa?
reduce poverty
reduce illiteracy among women
integrate women to labour market
reduce overpopulation
female politicians can be good example for girls

Full transcript