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FOLLOWERSHIP

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Yasir Patel

on 17 May 2016

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Transcript of FOLLOWERSHIP

FOLLOWERSHIP
Non-leaders
Non-managers
Subordinates
Members
Less Expert Peers
Observers
Contributors
Stewards
Partners
Servant-Leaders (Greenleaf)
FOLLOWERSHIP
DISSERTATION
Key Principles of Followership
Effects of Followership on Leadership
Effects of Followership at TBSC
Implications and Recommendations for TBSC
ORGANISATIONAL
CULTURE
Followership Culture
7 Principles (Mercer)
FOLLOWERSHIP TYPES
5 Follower typologies
AND YOU ARE?
BSc in Mathematics (2002)
MSc in Educational Leadership (2015)
Teacher - Manager - Head
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
“the basic value of a good follower is to believe in the importance of being a good follower.”

“The key to success in organizational leadership is to establish a culture for the followership principles to flourish – the Followership Culture.”

Mercer
Instant Response: Act immediately
Initiative: Do it yourself “take action without being asked" - Thody
Imagination: Start small, be creative
Integrity: Honest, confidential, fair, trustworthy.
Inquire: "who, why, when, what, how and where" questions about everything
Inform: No secrets - keep leader updated
Involve: participate and involve others. Work and life is a team effort. Followers that are “looking beyond themselves” - Thody
Can be implicit and not so explicit
Leads towards EXEMPLARY and EFFECTIVE Followers
Followership Culture
7 Principles (Mercer)
FOLLOWER-LEADER PATHWAYS
7 Pathways (Kelley)
1. The Apprentice
2. The Disciple
3. The Mentee
4. The Comrade
5. The Loyalist
6. The Dreamer
7. The Lifeway
PASSIVE FOLLOWER
The passive follower, or ‘bystanders’ as used by Kellerman, is the exact opposite of the exemplary follower.

They would like the leader to do the thinking for them and carry out their work with little enthusiasm. There is a lack of initiative and low sense of responsibility, which requires constant direction.

PRAGMATIC FOLLOWER

The pragmatic follower stays in the middle of the road. They do question the leader’s decisions, but not openly and infrequently.

They rarely do more than required, and perform the required tasks well. The slogan “better safe than sorry" describes them well.
CONFORMIST FOLLOWER

The conformist follower often says “yes” when they really want to say “no”.

They like to take orders and please others. They automatically assume that the leader’s position of power deserves obedience and do not question the social order.

ALIENATED FOLLOWER

The alienated followers tend to think independently and critically, but are not active in carrying out their role as a follower.

They will often be disengaged from the group and may see themselves as a victim who has been treated unfairly. As stated previously, Kellerman describes these followers as “isolated.”
EXEMPLARY FOLLOWER
The exemplary follower demonstrate independent, critical thinking, often steering away from the group or the leader. Secondly, they are actively engaged, using their abilities and talents for the benefits of the school, even when confronted by non-contributing members and with bureaucracy.

They are able to do their job and work with others in a way that adds value to the school. How they go about performing their tasks make them stand out from other followers.

They possess a number of values and skills that are both doable and learnable. Riggio et al. (2008) call these the ‘star followers’.
LEARNER-CENTRED
SCHOOL
Note: Ira Chaleff identifies and defines follower types based on 'support' and 'challenge'
Zawawi et al
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS
“have the vision to see the forest and the trees, the social capacity to work well with others, the strength of character to flourish without heroic status, the moral and psychological balance to pursue personal and corporate goals, and above all, the desire to participate in team effort for the accomplishment of some greater common purpose.” dependable, loyal and supportive"
Kelley
Servant-Leader (Greenleaf)
Ye and Agho describes the key variables:
Satisfaction
Professionalism
Leadership style
Emotional characteristics
Department climate
Teamwork attitudes
Teachers’ practice
Honesty
Competence
Dependable
Loyal
Supportive
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
Since most of us spend the majority of our time in the Followership role, it stands to reason that how we perform as followers determines, for the most part, how satisfied we are with our day-to-day work existence.

This questionnaire will help you determine your style of Followership. This is a self-diagnostic instrument, so please respond to each statement as you naturally behave.

Rate each question using the scoring key provided. It may help to think of a specific, typical situation and how you acted.
FOLLOWERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
Add up your answers to the following questions:

2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13 and 15

INDEPENDENT THINKING TOTAL?
Add up your answers to the following questions:

1, 5, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20

ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT TOTAL?
“A school whose mission, organization, leadership and curriculum delivery are all singularly focused on providing successful learning experiences and outcomes for all of its students”.
Dimmock
Students learning needs at the core
A bottom-up approach often
Crossman suggests a "stable trusting reciprocation"
Leadership styles: Transformational and/or Distributed
Promotes teamwork, collaboration and being servant-leaders
Followers are an end, not just mean of achieving organisational goals
Followers understood and future leaders created
Leaders intentions are vital (not autocratic and more participative and delegative)
Leaders must lead
Leaders must identify Passive, Alienated, Conformist and Pragmatic followers, and make some strong decisions
'Control' and 'Emotions'

Distributed Leadership

“is the expansion of leadership roles in schools, beyond those in formal leadership or administrative posts.” (Harris)
Transformational Leadership

"is leadership that occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality” (Kellerman)
TRANSFORMATIONAL
AND DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP
“Followership leaders educate their followers in a mindset that permeates the entire organization from top to bottom so that everyone knows what is expected when they go to work every day.”
POSITIVE
Relationships
Open, Honest, Genuineness, Loyalty and Integrity
Trust and Safety
Teacher Autonomy, Choice, Responsibility and Flexbility
Accountability
Manager Appraisals (by staff)
EDUCERE
:
A process whereby true autonomy is given to teachers to lead their lives based on the perennial question, “How do I lead a life worth living?” (servant-leadership)
“Outstanding learning is ultimately a collaborative experience between the formal leader (the teacher) and the informal leader-followers (the students)” moving along the follower-leader continuum. (Riggio et. al)
Staff Empowerment
NURTURING EXEMPLARY AND EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS
On the job training
Followership Education
Implicit training and education
Buy-in from managers
Shadowing
Links to Appraisal systems
Buy-in from staff
Accountability
Followership Culture
'if a leader fits the follower’s perception of an effective leader, then they are more likely to be seen in a favourable light, that of an effective leader."
Burak, O. and Bashshur, M.
EMOTIONS OF LEADERS
Emotion factor will be part of whatever success or failure occurs
Leaders agree that a 'controlled' emotional front must be presented (as is the norm)
Research suggests this is 'energy depleting and unhealthy'
Damasio: Emotions and reasoning are not mutually exclusive
Russell: Understand your emotions to understand your followers'
Managers tend to prefer the norm - otherwise, it creates anxiety and insecurity
'LET GO'
INITIATIVE: Just do it!
Beatty found that when leaders let go, and shared responsibility and credit, a sense of personal awakening, satisfaction and relief was felt
Fox: Emotions have as much of an influence on culture as the cultures has on you
“the impact of followers on leaders has largely been ignored”
Burak, O. and Bashshur, M.
WHY BOTHER WITH EDUCATION AND
EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP?
Followership: new stream of leadership
('
In order to fully understand leadership, one must fully understand followership'
)
Links between Education and Economic Prosperity
Educational Leadership
Crippen:
“an effective school has established a balanced authentic leadership-­followership dynamic.”
1960 (Wiles)
1984: Followership in Education
GOOGLE SEARCH....
TBSC STUDY
June 2014
30/35 (86%) of Teachers
7/7 Managers
5 Managers interviewed
1 person knew the concept of Followership
“I am worried of the consequences of my opinion” and one wrote that, “it depends on the leader, and under the current leader, I merely follow”
“it would be difficult to find a good leader who is not also a good follower.”
Agho
27 followers claimed to be
effective
followers and all 7 members of management claimed the same. (92% in total)

This contradicts with previous results.
Learner-Centred School?
57% of Followers agreed
43% of Managers
“We are clearly are not singularly focused on providing successful learning experiences and outcomes for all students.”
Interviewee 3 felt non-educators were making some decisions and this results in questionable choices.
Managers do not show emotions
Managers felt they had to hold back
Followers want to help
Unhappy Followers (Managers agree)
Role of leaders unclear
Lack of transparency exists
Leadership did not care
Managers care about followers' opinions
School and leader culture affected emotions
“some managers are trying their best despite testing times and restrictions.”
“it is unfair to blame everything on managers. We are one team”,

interviewee: “we cannot be responsible for everything. We have people we place trust in and as such, they should share responsibility.”

interviewee: “I know my job, staff know their job, we can be accountable for our own jobs. Otherwise, do I have my pay cut too?”

Followership is added as a key Strategic goal
Followership is embedded into the Appraisal system
Followership and Leadership training is provided to all staff as interlinked concepts
Job descriptions are created for all staff and shared
Encourage managers to be shadowed (and vice versa)
Working groups created when possible
Identify follower-manager pathways
Incorporate Followership principles
Identify Follower types
Move towards a learner-centered school
Strengthen transformational leadership style, including aspects of Distributed leadership
Evaluate communication, maybe with staff PD
Work towards a Followership Culture that promotes positive relationships and collaboarative practices
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TBSC
SUMMARY
Followership and links to school improvement is no longer deniable; schools need to rethink their leadership structure, organisational structure, performance management systems, emotional consideration and school culture.

Distributed and Transformational leadership go hand in hand with followership, however leaders must ‘let go’ of control. Furthermore, Zawawi et al. (2012) show that transformational leadership helps leaders to identify followers according to their types and further aspire the followers to bring out the best in them.

Schools may now identify staff followership type, strengths and areas for development. Together with the follower pathways and principles of a great follower, these should be included within performance management systems to establish a Followership Culture, leading to the nurturing of exemplary followers, who in turn will lead to effective followers with the capability to be excellent leaders. As for the question of how we can nurture exemplary followers, Antelo et al. (2010: 5) seemingly link their viewpoint with the concept of followership culture and the need to restructure organisations, redefine organisational culture and leadership style, by stating that we can nurture effective followers by “re-conceptualizing the workplace, institutionalizing followership, hiring and training for followership, and recognizing and celebrating followership.”

Finally, we can no longer ignore the effect of followership on leaders, this could be emotional or otherwise, as Burak, O. and Bashshur, M. (2013: 921) opine, “Followers behave, and their behaviours can have an effect on the leaders.”
THE APPRENTICE
Staff who want to move up the ladder
THE DISCIPLE
They carry the message, culture and vision of the school. They promote the leader's ideas.
THE MENTEE
Looking to learn and improve.
THE COMRADE
Enjoy working together and forming relationships with others.
Crippen:
"Schools are all about relationships"
THE LOYALIST
Supportive and always loyal to the leader
THE DREAMER
"do their own thing" and staff that are "outside the box".
THE LIFEWAY
Route of service and helping others is the best and most satisfying way of living.
Greenleaf's Servant-Leader concept.
@MrYasirPatel
yasirp@yahoo.com
BREAKOUT SESSION
ROBYN JACKSON

Thursday 21st April, 2016

Keynote
Breakout Session
Discussion with Teachers
DISCUSSION POINT 1
Think of the teachers at your school that annoy you, that get under your skin - '
those
' teachers!

Why? Discuss and feedback
10 minutes
DISCUSSION POINT 2
Think of the teachers at your school that you
LOVE
, wish you had more of and hope never leave!

Why? Discuss and feedback
10 minutes
DISCUSSION POINT 3
15 minutes
How do we make staff Exemplary Followers?
What structures need to be in place?
Do we need everybody to be exemplary?
What to do with staff that cannot change?
Other questions and issues?
Full transcript