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Transcript of faulty subordination
WHAT IS FAULTY SUBORDINATION?
To wrap up coordination and subordination, remember
occurs when the more important clause is placed in a subordinate position in the sentence or when the expected relation between clauses is reversed
Two types of problems we can encounter when using subordination:
we can use the wrong subordinator
we can subordinate the wrong idea
To avoid using the incorrect subordinator, always make sure that the connecting subordinator shows exactly how two ideas are related.
John ran for months even though he would be ready for the marathon.
John ran for months so that he would be ready for the marathon.
To avoid showing ideas that are not related, we can use a subordinator to make the less important idea a subordinate clause and express the more important idea as an independent clause.
Although they took a walk, it was raining.
Although it was raining, they took a walk.
Imported wines are popular with Canadian moms although their import poses a long-term threat to the livelihood of Canadian dads.
Although imported wines are popular with Canadian moms, their import poses a long-term threat to the livelihood of Canadian dads.
REARRANGING OF WORDS
The chicken crossed the road as he was killed.
The chicken was killed as he crossed the road.
To correct excessive subordination, we coordinate equal ideas or make separate sentences.
Terrified to return home, he had driven his mother's car into a cornfield.
Having driven his mother's car into a cornfield, he was terrified to return home.
Faulty Subordination of the Main Thought
Do not put the principal statement of a sentence in a subordinate clause or phrase. This violation of unity is sometimes called "upside-down subordination".
Longstreet received orders to attack the Federal right wing, which he did immediately.
As soon as Longstreet received orders, he attacked the Federal right wing.
I suspected that it would rain, although I did not take an umbrella.
Although I suspected that it would rain, I did not take an umbrella.
Common Subordinators and Their Usage
To show time
after, before, whenever
To show cause
because, since, as
To show purpose
that, so that, in order that.
To show condition
if, even though, unless.
Do not attach a main clause by means of ‘’and’’ to a word, a phrase, or a clause
Wrong: Major went to bed, and leaving the work unfinished.
Right: Major went to bed, leaving the work unfinished.
Wrong: He ran home and with coat tails flying.
Right: He ran home with coat tails flying.
Connecting words need to best describe how the ideas are related.
If ideas are unrelated, use two separate sentences.
Use a coordinating word if both ideas are equal in importance.
Use a phrase or subordinate clause if related ideas are not equally important.
Rules to Remember Concerning Faulty Subordination
Faulty subordination occurs when the more important clause is placed in a subordinate position in the sentence or when the expected relation between clauses is reversed.
Example: Japanese-made cars are popular with American consumers although their import poses at least a short-term threat to the livelihood of some American workers. (In an essay or composition about he problems of the American worker this sentence would take attention away from the worker and incorrectly emphasize Japanese-made cars.)
Correct faulty subordination by changing the position of the subordinating word or phrase
Example: Although Japanese-made cars are popular with American consumers, their import poses at least a short-term threat to the livelihood of some American workers.
Keep in mind that excessive subordination occurs when a sentence contains a series of clauses, each subordinate to an earlier one. To correct excessive subordination, break the sentence into two or more sentences or change some of the dependent clauses to modifying phrases or appositives.
Faulty Coordination: LaTosha Robinson, who was a San Francisco-native who lived in the University Park Apartments, enjoyed those special moments when a group of students who also came from Northern California visited her dorm, which was lonely for most of the school year.
Correct Coordination: LaTosha Robinson, a San Francisco-native, lived in the University Park Apartments. Because her dorm was lonely most of the school year, she enjoyed those special moments when a group of students who also were from Northern California would visit.
One dependent clause, who was a San Francisco-native, has been changed to an appositive. A second dependent clause, who lived in the University Park Apartments, is now the predicate of the first sentence. These changes make the sentence more direct. The subordinator of the third dependent clause has been changed from which (identification) to because (cause) to show clearly the connection between the loneliness of the dormitory and LaTosha's enjoyment of those special visits.