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Learning Theories

Martin Luther Team COM10003 TP3
by

Tara Townsend

on 24 January 2016

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Transcript of Learning Theories

Behaviourism
Definition
Pioneers of the theory:
Strengths of the theory:
Weaknesses of the theory:
Applying strategies for the classroom:
Introduction:
Definition:
Pioneers of the theory:
Strengths of the theory:
Weaknesses of the theory:
Applying strategies for the classroom:
Constructivism
Constructivism is an educational based learning theory. People construct individual understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things, and reflecting on them.
Therefore, in the classroom a constructivist teacher encourages students to continuously consider how the activity is helping them expand understanding. (Education Broadcasting Corporation, 2004)
Pioneers of the theory:
Strengths of the theory:
Weaknesses of the theory:
Applying strategies for the classroom:
"In my early professionals years I was asking the question: How can I treat, or cure, or change this person? Now I would phrase the question in this way: How can I provide a relationship which this person may use for his own personal growth?” (Rogers, 2011).
The humanistic approach is based around free will, critical thinking, and achieving your personal best.
Pioneers of the theory:
Strengths of the theory:
Weaknesses of the theory:
Applying strategies for the classroom:
Design based theory
Definition
Pioneers of the theory:
Strengths of the theory:
Weaknesses of the theory:
Applying strategies for the classroom:
References:
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were the main drivers behind the theory.
They drew on experience from psychology clients, and how best to treat all individuals in a continually changing world of experience. (Bapca.org.uk, 2016)

Humanism engages the learner in a positive,
intense way, and draws on the personal wisdom and experience of a person.
It develops critical thinking and treats everyone as an adult enabling them to achieve unconditional positive self-regard.

Behaviourists would argue this approach is too laid back, and not everyone is capable of being good and achieving their best.
In a classroom, your role is to be a facilitator and to extract the lessons from the learners own insight. Encourage your students to set realistic goals, and allow the student to choose activities and tasks. Group work is essential to foster social and affective skills. (Rogers, n.d.)

Created by:
Learning group 12: Martin Luther King

Members:
Tara Townsend
Carly Pearse
Naddia Di Chele
Gorgi Zolotovs
Timothy Wardeiner
LEARNING THEORIES
Learning is knowledge and the ongoing change in behavior, achieved through study, life and environmental experiences and education. The theories of learning are the intangible outlines of how information is absorbed, managed and recalled though out the learning process and the impact of emotional, environmental and intellectual influences. These impacts play a vital role in the adaptation of ones skills, attitudes and behaviors. The primary models and theories of learning include behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism, humanism and design based theory.
Behaviourism focuses on observation of behaviours and consequences of actions. These behaviours can be rewarded or punished. Emerging in the early 20th century, theorists believed behaviours can be measured, taught and adapted and that reactions to surrounding incentives can persuade our actions.
Definition
Ivan Pavlov
A process in which the learner has recollection between two stimuli, this association results in a learned response. Pavlov (1902) demonstrated the relationship of the unconditioned response by presenting a dog with a bowl of food and the measuring its salivary secretions.
Classical Conditioning :
Pioneers of the theory:
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning:
Allows learning to take place using a reward or punishment system. Skinner (1938) believed that, changing behaviour by the use of a reinforcement, which is given after the desired response from the learner. Skinner identified three types of responses that can follow behaviour; Neutral operates, reinforces and punisher's.
Pavlov's Dog's
Behaviourism does not account for emotions, feelings and free will. It only considers what is observable and measurable. Most human behavior is not based on conditioned, convergent reflexes on a single task, but correlates to preceding mental processes that are divergent and collaborative in nature (Hung, 2013).
Behaviourism is founded on the measurement of observable behaviours. It is highly applicable in today’s modern classroom and allows learners to adapt quickly to an environment, whilst behaviour is shaped.
Apply focus on strengthening outcomes and desired behaviours, whilst providing constant feedback, rewards for being correct and encouragement for being incorrect.


Dcoetzee (n.d.)
Zone of Proximal Development.
[image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zone_of_proximal_development.svg
Dewey, J. (1897). My Pedagogic Creed. School Journal, 54, pp. 77-80.
Doppelt, Y., Mehalik, M.M., Schunn, C.D., Silk, E., Krysinski, D. (2008). Engagement and Achievements: A Case Study of Design-Based Learning in a Science Context. Journal of Technology Education, 19(2), 19-23.
Duchesne, S., Bochner, S., & Krause, K. (2015)
. Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching.
(4th ed.) South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. EBL Ebook Library. Retrieved from http://reader.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/(S(qt3vcxuduf2o22514tyubxc4))/Reader.aspx?p=1990988&o=132&u=VOnyBeQS33vnIqv4%2fQNZGw%3d%3d&t=1452914197&h=3E86E2E865F73054CCB0BE2E0BCAA45FCF8D5924&s=22696042&ut=405&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1&sd=1
Educational Broadcasting Corporation. (2004).
What Is Constructivism?
. Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013)

Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective
. Performance Improvement Quarterly,
26(2), 43-71. doi:10.1002/piq.21143
Figure 2.4. Piaget's stages of cognitive development.
In
Duchesne, S., Bochner, S., & Krause, K. (2015)
. Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching.
(4th ed.) South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.
Gleeson, P. (2016).
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Constructivism in the Classroom.
Retrieved January, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/info_7966699_advantages-disadvantages-constructivism-classroom.html
Gray, A. (n.d.).
Constructivist Teaching and Learning.
Retrieved January, 2016, from http://www.saskschoolboards.ca/old/ResearchAndDevelopment/ResearchReports/Instruction/97-07.htm
Huitt, W. (2009). Humanism and open education.
Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta
State University. Retrieved January 16th, 2016 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/affect/humed.html
Hung, W. (2013)
. Team-based complex problem solving: a collective cognition perspective. Educational Technology Research & Development, 61(3), 365-384.
Kramlinger, T., & Huberty, T. (1990)
.
Behaviorism Versus Humanism.
Training & Development Journal,
44(12), 41
Learning Theories. (2007). Retrieved January, 2016 from www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
Maslow, A., (2012). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Father of Modern Management & Leadership by Employee Motivation. Retrieved January 16th, 2016 from http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Positive Reinforcer

Cognitivism focuses on the “mental processes that are associated with taking in, organising and making sense of information.” (Duschesne et al. 2015, p.56). People use these processes to link new information with prior knowledge. (Yilmaz 2011, Ertmer & Newby 2013)
Jean Piaget
Piaget believed children travelled through four sequential stages of cognitive development. He identified “key achievements that had to be attained by a child at each cognitive level.” (Duschesne et al., 2015, p.58)
Lev Semanovich Vygotsky
Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky’s focal point was on the sociocultural and historical influences influencing cognition. Vygotsky also believed collaboration was important. Therefore, he believed language was “the most important mental tool.” (Duchesne et al., 2015, p. 85)
Vygotsky also identified what he called the zone of proximal development (ZPD). The ZPD is what a child is capable of doing with the help from someone more capable.
Zone of Proximal Development
Cognitivism allows for individual differences in learner’s abilities and prior knowledge. Cognitivism can also be applied in many socio-cultural areas of teaching.
Both Piaget’s stages, and Vygotsky’s ZPD, are too broad. However, where Piaget did not take into account the role of the teacher or social interactions, Vygotsky’s ZPD does.
As a teacher, make lessons meaningful to the learner. Provide tasks and goals that are relevant, and within a child's ZPD.
(Figure 2.4. Piaget's stages of cognitive development p. 58).
APA Style
Humanism

Definition
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygostky are said to be the pioneers behind constructivism. Piaget was a psychologist and philosopher well known for his epistemological research (Williams, 2010).
Vygostky was known for his social development theory relating to constructivism and the Zone of Proximal Development (Learning Theories, 2007).
Due to constructivism being focused on experience based learning, there are some concerns that children may lack experience in a traditional classroom. Therefore when children begin higher education they may be unprepared for the occasional boredom and lecture- based teaching methods that are present in high school (Gleeson, 2016).
In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can contain a number of different activities and strategies, this could include; hands on experiments or activities, incorporating real life into the lesson and also the teacher knowing each students way of learning (Gray, n.d.).
Conclusion:
Many learning theories have been developed over a period of time. Although the majority of these, have arisen in the last century. These theories can be applied to many different levels of educational learning. The theories are the way in which teachers teach and students learn. As all students learn differently there are various strategies that can be applied in the classroom to gain knowledge. The opinion of the teacher, and how they believe students acquire information, defines the way they teach. Therefore, it is important to understand these learning theories in order to teach students in a way that is effective for them to acquire knowledge.
John Dewey promoted the idea of "learning while doing" (Dewey, 1897). Dewey conveyed the notion that an educator should "... select the influences that will affect the child... [rather than] to impose certain ideas...".
Educational research has since expanded on his theory, to produce supportive evidence towards his now evolved "project-based learning".
Students have shown a greater depth of understanding, broader knowledge, increased creativity, interpersonal/social skills, and leadership when participating in design-based programs. (Project based learning, 2014)
Dewey, 1902
Design based theory can be easily defined as 'hands on' learning. The ideology is to use simple cues, along with previous knowledge and trial and error, to develop an understanding of physical and theory based learning. Putting the textbooks away, and developing a more rounded skill set.
Educators are beginning to change the way, in which they teach students. A constructivist way of teaching, involves the student in hands on activities and giving the students experiences that enrich their thinking and learning. This alone is a positive towards the theory and the overall education of children.
The theory has a tendency to focus students on outcomes or goals, and can be ineffective with certain skill sets and concepts that are overlooked.
Its appropriateness towards mathematics as a long term curriculum activity is also a concern. As mathematics is primarily skill and theory based. (Project based learning, 2014)
The theory needs to be incorporated into the long term curriculum and encompass active learning in every session.
In a project developed by Stanford Graduate School of Education, we can see "It encourages a thriving learning context for students active participation and construction of knowledge instead of passively learning about science from textbooks and lectures." (Doppelt et al., 1998)

https://gse-it.stanford.edu/research/project/dbl
Here is a short clip of a Museum Design Collaborative project, funded by the Noyce Foundation, in relation to Design Based Learning.
What's mainstream and what's not:
Learning Styles
Learning objectives
Cognitivism
Thank you...
Maslow, A., (2012). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [chart]. Retrieved January 16, 2016, from http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp
McLeod, S. A. (2013). Pavlov's Dogs. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.htmlPavlov, I. P. (1897/1902). The work of the digestive glands. London: Griffin.
Museum Design Collaborative Project 2014, Design Based Learning. Retrieved from You Tube
Project based learning. (2014). Retrieved 17 January, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/project-based_learning
Robinson. A. (2015) Hierarchy of operant conditioning. [Diagram] Retrieved from http://www.theravive.com/today/post/Parenting-with-Positive-Discipline-0001714.aspx
Rogers, C. (2011). On Becoming a Person, Constable & Robinson. EBL Ebook Library. Retrieved from http://reader.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/(S(0f5p0daqv3uazceltrrg0uyf))/Reader.aspx?p=767482&o=132&u=VOnyBeQS33vnIqv4%2fQNZGw%3d%3d&t=1453103138&h=42CC8832F1E9C1D3133206B7D98424C34406928C&s=22708776&ut=405&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1&sd=1#
Savage, D. (2009). Savage Chickens. [Comic] Retrieved from http://www.savagechickens.com/tag/operant-conditioning
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York, United States of America: Appleton-Century.
Templateswise. (2015). Without You. [song]. Retrieved from http://www.templateswise.com/Free_Music_Loops/detail/link-14.html
The British Association for the Person Centred Approach. (2015)
. Carl Rogers.
Retrieved January 24th, 2016, from
http://www.bapca.org.uk/about/carl-rogers.htm
l
Unknown. (1950) . B.F Skinner. [Image]. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner#/media/File:B.F._Skinner_at_Harvard_circa_1950.jpg
Unknown. (n.d.) Ivan Pavlov. [Image]. Retrieved from http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/images/B21072
Unknown. (1968) Jean Piaget at the University of Michigan campus. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Piaget_in_Ann_Arbor.png
Unknown. (2016).
Bad dog. [C
artoon]
.
Retrieved on 24 January 2016.
Retrieved from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/328340629053879967/
Vygotsky Project (2001) Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934. [file]. Retrieved from http://webpages.charter.net/schmolze1/vygotsky/
Williams, S. (2010). The Theory of Constructivism. Retrieved from http://www.codeotaku.com/journal/2010-05/constructivism/index
Yilmaz, K. (2011). The Cognitive Perspective on Learning: Its Theoretical Underpinnings and Implications for Classroom Practices. Clearing House, 84(5), 204-212. doi:10.1080/00098655.2011.568989
References (cont):
APA Style
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
(Dcoetzee n.d.)
(Vigotsky Project, n.d.).
(Unknown, 1968).
(McLeod, 2013).
(Robinson, 2015).
(Savage, 2009).
(Unknown, n.d).
(Unknown, 1950).
(azquotes, 2014)
Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky
(zappykids, 2015)
( Maslow, 2012).
(Kramlinger & Huberty, 1990).
(Kramlinger & Huberty, 1990).
(Kramlinger & Huberty, 1990).
(Bad dog, 2016)
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