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Imperial Russia: Ruling of Nicholas I - The Revolution of 1905
Transcript of Imperial Russia: Ruling of Nicholas I - The Revolution of 1905
Switched the Council of State process to an Ad Hoc Committee so
that any major decisions and policy changes were made by him and a few trusted assistants. Not a lot of progress was made this way.
Expanded His Majesty's Own Chancery to six focused
departments (government branches). The Third Department introduced gendarmerie, a national level of the military that only answered to the Tsar.
Sergei Uvarov (1786–1855) led the Department of Education to
craft and issue the doctrine of “Official Nationality” in 1833 which emphasized the traditional, conservative values of “Orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality.”
Issued de jure reforms, some which allowed serfs to conditionally
purchase their freedom. But there was lack of reinforcement and the
conditions of serfs did not improve.
Won Russo-Persian War (1828-29) and gained control over part
of Armenia. Also won a war with Turkey which resulted in Russian control of the mouth of the Danube River, commercial access to the Straits of Dardanelles and Bosporus (and, therefore, access to the
Mediterranean Sea), and the establishment of Russian protectorates in Moldavia and Wallachia. The peoples of these regions had to go through Russification, his foreign policy.
Decided to enter into war against France, Britain, Turkey, and Sardinia in the Crimean War (1853–55) which resulted
in significant losses. Russia was prohibited from using the Black Sea for military purposes, relinquished control of the mouth of the Danube and part of Bessarabia, and, most importantly, lost access to and control of the Orthodox Church in the Ottoman Empire. Nicholas I Alexander II...... Alexander II Alexander III... Alexander III Nicholas II... Nicholas II (1868–1918) was mostly known for his failures. He was simple-minded and less capable than his late father, Nicholas I. The last tsar of Russia, he is, in a certain amount of give and take, responsible for the fall of the military, economy, and monarchy. Nicholas kept the same policies as his father as well as Alexander III's including religious persecution. The causes of the Revolution of 1905 edged from
both the overall transformation of Russian society
during the past forty years as well as the authoritarian, overbearing policies of the last two tsars. Two classes were formed during the conception period of the revolution: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie were the higher class who owned production means and the proletariat had to sell their labor to live. When social structure took a significant shift, Russians were introduced to the ideas if the West such as individualism and equality. One of the first groups to form to begin the revolution were the Social Democrats, formed in 1898. They followed the ideas of Marxism and eventually split into the two groups, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks were lead by the future lead of Russia, Vladimir Lenin. The second group was the Socialist Revolutionary Party, formed in 1901. They were leftist radicals with close ties to the terrorist group, the Will of the People, responsible for the death of Alexander II. The final group were the Liberals, formed in 1903. They supported the replacement of the Russian monarchy
with either a constitutional monarchy or a full
republic in the tradition of Western European states. The revolutionists used two strategies: One, to use uprisings and force to make the government and tsar notice them. Two, was to present the tsar with demands. These both failed. On January 22, 1905, however, revolutionists marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg where the tsar and his family lived. To protect the palace, 130 people were killed by police. This event was known as Bloody Sunday. Although Nicholas II relaxed some Russian policies, protests and uprisings continued and there was even a mutiny on the military ship Potemkin. In late October, the revolutionaries organized and coordinated
a general strike that essentially shut down the
entire Russian economy and society for a period of ten
days. Nicholas II then released the October Manifesto which extended the Russians' rights and sketched out future democracy and liberalism. This basically ended the rebellion as the people were split in two groups, Liberals and radicals. The radicals were basically dismembered. Nicholas II did follow through with the Manifesto and laid out a way to create a constitutional monarchy. However, he made it to where he still had immense power and could dissolve the Duma at any time. He did exactly that after the Duma did at least two months work. There were eventually four different Dumas elected over the years and became very right-winged.