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Anth101 GENDER F17

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by

Julie Jenkins

on 1 November 2017

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Transcript of Anth101 GENDER F17

Universal way of organizing social roles
but matters in different ways and to different degrees between cultures
Why Study Gender?
Anthropology (and other disciplines) had been androcentric historically
What is the difference between sex & gender?
Sex- biological differences
(X/Y chromosomes, hormones, secondary sexual characteristics)

Gender- culturally & historically constructed norms, values, & behaviors
Gender
Cross-Cultural Perspectives

"US"
Hegemonic idea that acts as if our sex determines our gender (two sexes = two genders)
idea took root during Renaissance

"naturally" feminine, "naturally" masculine
Hua of Papua New Guinea
Gender classified on physical characteristics and amount of “nu”

Women in child bearing years- large amount of nu
Men- low amount of nu
Women post-menopausal- low amount of nu “like men”
Elderly men- high amount of nu “like women”
Multiple Gender Categories
"Third Gender" +
Nadleehe
-third category that includes intersex, 'feminine bio-males' & 'masculine bio-females'
-gender identity that incorporates both masculine & feminine roles & symbols
-performs multiple gendered tasks-- domestic, hunting, warfare
-spiritual power- healing
-Have marriage relationships with gendered person that are not Nadleehe
What kinds of ideas, symbols, etc about masculinity & the 'appropriate behavior of men' is transmitted in this commercial?
1/100 differ from the male/female binary
1/500 receive surgery to "normalize" genital appearance
Hegemonic idealised gender vs multiple ways of being a gendered person
The Hijras in India

-gender role is neither male nor female
not necessarily biologically DETERMINED. RELATED, but NOT DETERMINED.

--“raw material” that we build different ideas, beliefs, meanings, and roles around

--Construction of Reality
How are ideas about masculinity and femininity produced, managed, and transmitted within the US context?
But...is 'sex' actually as apparent as we think it is?
How do the Kabre connect constructions of gender to understandings of biological processes?
-"I am man, hear me roar"
-"Man up"
-"Have you seen his hands? And you know what they say about men with small hands?”
-"Grow a pair (of balls)"
-"Crying is for girls"
What effect do these ideas have on relations between genders?
"Gender reality is performative which means, quite simply, that it is real only the extent that it is performed"
Judith Butler (Performative, 278)
"Man the Hunter, Woman the Gatherer"
Is this historically true?

Is this true cross-culturally?
attempts to explain in terms of:
-strength
-fertility
-childcare
Nicaragua

-masculinity: active, dominant, often violent

-dominating of women as well as other men, socially & sexually
What is the Kabre division of labor?
both are misunderstood as a "man in women's clothing"- really a third gender category
Mombasa (Kenya)
--shift between sexual partners within lifetime
--has to follow norms of rank
who can be a sexual partner varies cross-cultural, and doesn't always map onto identity categories of heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual
Ongoing debates about whether gender inequality, in all its manifestations, is universal- are all non-masculine persons undervalued?
Gender inequality is not something we 'possess', it is something we do- through interactions, transmission of ideas, in our language, through our legal & political institutions, etc

What effect may it have to formally recognize, via census etc, more than two gender categories?
Full transcript