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Qin Dynasty: Ancient China (History Assignment)
Transcript of Qin Dynasty: Ancient China (History Assignment)
220 BCE: Construction of the Great Wall begins
213 BCE: Policy of book burning begins
210 BCE: First emperor dies, his youngest son becomes Emperor.
He is buried with 8600 Terra Cotta warriors.
209 BCE: Rebellions begin
208 BCE: Second Emperor dies
207BCE: Battle of Julu. Emperor Ziying surrenders to Lui Bang, leader of rebel forces
206 BCE: The Qin family is killed, leading into the Han dynasty. Geography of Ancient China Agriculture & Food * located east of China near the east China Sea and the Yellow Sea
* The Yangtze River, Yellow River, Luoyang River, and the Chang'an River ran through this dynasty ---> improved the transport of food, as well as trade for the people
* The capital during this time was Xianyang
* The Great Wall of China and protected the Northern border
* The Himalayan Mountain Range served as a natural barrier against countries on the other west side
*The Gobi and Taklimakan deserts were another natural barriers, and prevented Mongolians and Tadzhik's from entering north and west as well The geography of China is very diverse, ranging from snow-capped mountains and valleys, to lowlands and plateaus. * Chinese eating and drinking habits differ greatly from those in the West.
Westerners eat more meat while the Chinese eat more vegetables, especially the
* Cereal are said to have been discovered by Shen Nong, the chief of the ancestors of
* harvested rice, wheat, barley and native vegetables
* fished in the river
* drank tea
* The relationship between food and politics was especially important during the Qin Dynasty.
Banquets and feasts were the norm whenever the emperor met with princes or dukes or
whenever the latter met with each other. * It was under the Qin emperor, Qin Shuhuangdi (221-210 BC),
with help from the holy men that the greatest number of Chinese citizens hear of
and began consuming tea
* When the emperor employed workers from the western provinces to aid in the building of the Great Wall, the workers lived in compulsory labor camps and on their down time drinking tea
* Tea was used for medicinal purposes before it became a common beverage
* Even though tea had become more accessible and popular, its preparation still produced a bitter drink; throughout the dynasties tea drinking continued to undergo refinements as well as the processing and brewing of fresh tea leaves changed
* The variety they consumed depended on how the tea was processed; different Chinese tea included green tea, black tea, oolong tea, white tea, yellow tea, and pu'er-type tea TEA CLOTHING * the preferred color of the Qin dynasty was black, because black was related to the element of water
* As a result, within the Qin dynasty, black was the superior color to symbolize the energy of water, so clothing and adornments had been all of the color black.
* Qin terracotta warriors have three kinds of dressing:
1. includes a long jacket, a pair of shorts, and a pair of shallow shoes, and combed a tight roll of hair at the right side of the head, assembled with leggings and has armor on the back
2. similar to the first one except the soldiers had a red handkerchief on their head
3. same as the second one, but the soldiers combed flat bobs on the back of their heads instead of wearing handkerchiefs. * In the Qin Dynasty, the ranks of officers can be recognized by their dressings.
* The terracotta general wore a dual long jacket, a dark purple crest hat, a long pant, a thigh protector, a pair of boots with square opening tipping and uniform head, and covered with a colorful armor, looking grand and awe-inspiring.
* The middle-level officer has two kinds of dressing. The first kind includes a long jacket, a thigh protector, a boots with square opening tipping head, chest plate trimmed with colorful lace and a double long hat. The second kind includes a high collar gown clasped on the right side, a thigh protector, a boots with square opening tipping head and covered a piece of armor with smooth edge and colorful lace. The junior officer wears a long jacket, a piece of armor, a long hat, a pair of shallow shoes and a thigh protector. Also there are a few junior officers do not wear armors. They fight in light equipment. * changes in the style of dress were dramatic
* The Emperor Qin, who was influenced by the concept of Yin and Yang as well as the theory of the Five Elements. He believed that the Qin dynasty would subdue the Zhou dynasty like water extinguishes fire. Therefore, because the Zhou dynasty was "fire superior to gold, its colour being red," the favourite colour of the Qin dynasty was black, since the colour black was associated with water.
* Thus, in the Qin dynasty, black was the superior colour to symbolise the power of water, so clothing and adornments were all of the colour black. During the two hundred years of the Western Han dynasty, the “dark style” continued for clothing and personal adornment. Its characteristics were: cicada-like hats, red clothing, square sleeves, sloping necklines, jade hanging decorations, and red shoes.
* The general term for this style of clothing was “Buddhist clothing” and is basically a one-layer coat. Court dress was black in colour. As for the formal dress used in performing sacrificial rites, it was edged with red. The only way to tell a person’s rank or position in society was by the colour and quality of his clothing — there was no difference in the style of the clothing worn by government officials and ordinary people.
* There were two types of robes, classified according to the style of the front of the robe. One style had a front with a diagonal opening, where the material was wrapped on a diagonal from the collar to under one arm, and the other had a straight opening down the front. Because this style of clothing was long and loose, it was a popular style for men
* Women usually wore loose clothes with long large sleeves. Under the long skirt was a pair of high-heeled clogs with some embroidery on them. There was usually a scarf called Jinguo wrapped on the arm of a noble woman while ordinary or poor women had no decoration on their arms. As time passed by, the coat tended to be shorter and the skirt became longer. Noble women even needed maids’ help to lift up the skirts to avoid the skirts being stained by the ground. CLOTHING (CONT.) HAIRSTYLING * Much of what is known about the hairstyle of the warriors in the Qin Dynasty is through the depictions on the Terra Cotta Army statues
* It is known that male soldiers would braid their hair and knot it on the top right of his head. * In the Qin Dynasty, solemn and tidy styles were all the rage. At that time, life and death were much related to wars. So both men and women would cut their hair on the temples at a right angle, shaving all hair under the temples. That way, they looked quite clean and tidy * Lasted from 221BCE-207/206BCE
* This dynasty marked the end of the warring states period, and Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang) proclaims himself Emperor
* Construction of the Great Wall begins.
* Lingqu Canal is designed and built (worlds oldest and largest contour canal).
* Burning of opposing books and purge of opposing scholars.
* Standardization of writing and weight system
* Terra Cotta warriors are buried with the first emperor.
* Rebelling begins with reign of second emperor. Battle of Julu. Surrender of power from Ziying (Emperor at the time) SUMMARY OF KEY EVENTS * Emperor Ying Zheng implemented reforms and measures designed to prevent
any uprisings at its roots and to maintain stability of his rule
* These reforms were straightforward and heavy handed
* Feudalism was abandoned altogether and the institution of vassals and landowners was abolished which drew the loyalty of the peasants from their landlords back to the emperor; this is how the previously warring states were unified by the Qin Dynasty
* This newly found control of the masses and unity of the empire allowed the emperors projects to be completed both elaborately and ambitiously, as well as to a large scale
* Among the emperor’s efforts in advancing his beloved empire was expansion. He wielded in his power a revolutionary army with more military strength than any other kingdom at the time. His military had the most advanced weapons but also operated it with a heavy hand.
* In politics, he declared himself the Emperor of the state. All major powers including politics, economy, military affairs were in his hand. Executive organizations both in the central and local places were systematically reorganized and local counties were restructured. * Before the beginning of the first dynasty of China, several states were vying for dominance; and Qin was one of them
* They were able to conquer all of the others under the wise leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang)
* His strategy was to align its state with one state to defeat and conquer another; this begun with the state Hao, followed by Zhao and Yan, then its neighbouring states Wei Chu and Qui shortly followed
* This was the first dynasty of a unified China UNIFYING ANCIENT CHINA POLITICS * Ying Zheng (1st Emperor):
- crowned king of the qin province at 3,
- unified China in his 25th year of reign and proclaimed himself emperor
- banned books on anthing but medicine or agriculture, scholars forced to give up books or die
- standardized the coin money and a weight system.
- began lavish building projects, including the ineffective wall of china.
- he was burried with an army of terra cotta warriors and horses
* Ying HuHai (2nd Emperor):
- Ying Zheng youngest son
- came to power after his older brother committed suicide on false information
- rebellions began 3 years into his reign and died shortly after
* Ying Ziying (3rd Emperor):
- became emperor at age 9 IMPORTANT PEOPLE * China was under an imperial system, where the emperor possessed total control
* The whole empire was divided into commanderiers (jun ), administered by a civil governor (shou ), a military commander (wei ) and an imperial inspector (jianyushi ). The commanderies were divided in counties (xian ), administered by a magistrate (ling ).
* The writing system, especially the shape of characters, was reformed and resulted in the so-called Small Seal Script (xiaozhuanti ).
* The administrative and penal code (lüling ) was spread throughout the country, and standards (fadu ) like weights, measures and currency should be used in the whole empire. Highways were built (like the Roman viae), and general Meng Tian had the order to build the Great Wall (Changcheng ) to repell the nomadic Xiongnu tribes.
* The First Emperor moved thousands of families to his capital, build himself the great imperial Ebang-Palace and let himself be buried in a gigantic tomb with a terracotta army to protect him. During his reign, the emperor spent much time to inspect the empire (xunxing ) and climbed Mount Taishan to perform the old Fengshan sacrifice to Heaven and Earth." LEGAL SYETM (LAWS) (Heavenly spirit blesses our dynasty for ever with peace).. By the Qin Dynasty it came to be used by low-ranking officials in the Chinese government. It simplified the more complicated strokes of seal character script and used a bend instead of making a roundabout turn. Lishu is attributed to Cheng Miao, who lived in the state of Qin. The script was used by clerks working in prisons, hence the Chinese term lishu (servitude script). * Standardized coin was introduced throughout the empire
* Weights were also standardized to ensure fair trades and
smoother long distance affairs
* The emperor recognized the markets and trade and made them more efficient by implementing a uniform standard in trade and making the currency more secure
* Peasants were exploited in large building projects, and taxes were
raised greatly to aid these building projects which weakened the economy ECONOMY Pottery measure. Stamped with the text of an Imperial decree ordering the unification of the weight and measures system of the country issued by Qin Shihuang, the first Emperor of the Qin Dynasty in the 26th year of his reign (221BC), it bears an eloquent testimony to the unification of the country under this emperor and the concentration of power in the central government. * Enforced the philosophy of Legalism which doesn’t concern itself with religion or the afterlife; the main idea was to make a system that will make and culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the state
* The first Emperor was blamed for having burned the books [(fen burning) might by a writing error for the character (jin prohibiting)] and buried alive the Confucian scholars. RELIGION & PHILOSOPHY * The emperor burned & prohibited books on Confucianism
* The only books not forbidden were writings about medicine, herbs, divining and agriculture because they were encouraged
* no great works come out of this period, as the first emperor thought that it would threaten his authority LITERATURE * Poetry was actually frowned upon, as it was not productive. the emperor wanted people doing things, not writing. unless they were one of few scholars allowed to write, only with the emperors approval of course
* Later, after the qin dynasty, a man wrote a poem expressing his disgust with the first emperors behaviours.
`The Book Burning Pit` By Zhang Jie
The Qin Dynasty is ruined with the burning of bamboos and fabrics.
The Hangu Pass and the Yellow River guarded the residence of the ancestor of the Chinese dragon in vain.
Before the ashes in the burning pit turned cold, a riot had already started in Shandong Province.
It turned out that Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were both uneducated people. POETRY * Standardized money/ universal coinage
* Standardized language
* Standardized system of weights and measures
* Standardized System of Government
* Great Wall of China
* Terracotta army
* Multiplication Table
* Irrigation Projects
* Expanded roads and canals TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS * City walls, used for defense, were made longer, and indeed several secondary walls were also sometimes built to separate the different districts
* Verticality in federal structures was emphasized to create a sense of authority and absolute power. Architectural elements such as high towers, pillar gates, terraces, and high buildings amply conveyed this.
* The Qin Dynasty didn't last very long (only 15 years) and so there wasn't time to develop any special style of art.
* There were city walls, used for defense, and some secondary walls, to separate the different districts. ARCHITECTURE CRAFTS WOMEN MEN * Majority of women were peasant women and worked extremely hard
* Performed domestic tasks; spinning, weaving, cooking, milking, taking care of the poultry and other livestock, would labour in the field if necessary at harvest time, etc
* Worked as servants; many representations in art
* Women musicians; depicted in art with musical instruments or as dancers
* Could help the family business
* Women of higher social classes would probably be expected to marry, and to manage their households, supervise the servants, supervise the raising and education of their children
* Upper class women were educated; some women poets and scholars
* For instance Lady Fang, who lived in the first century BC, is the earliest recorded woman alchemist in China. She is credited with the discovery of how to turn mercury into silver. Pan Chao (48-117 AD), was the only woman to hold the position of official historian to the Imperial court of the Han Dynasty. She is best known for her Precepts for Women, a guide for women's higher education which remained the standard until the 20th century. She was an honored poet and acted as Poet Laureate to the Court. * Commoners and rural villagers, who made up over 90% of the population, very rarely left the villages or farmsteads where they were born.
* Common forms of employment differed by region, though farming was almost universally common. Professions were hereditary; a father's employment was passed to his eldest son after he died
* Peasants were rarely figured in literature during the Qin Dynasty and afterwards; scholars and others of more elite status preferred the excitement of cities and the lure of politics.
* One notable exception to this was Shen Nong, the so-called "Divine Father", who taught that households should grow their own food. "If in one's prime he does not plow, someone in the world will grow hungry. If in one's prime she does not weave, someone in the world will be cold."
* The Qin encouraged this; a ritual was performed once every few years that consisted of important government officials taking turns with the plow on a special field, to create a simulation of government interest and activity within agriculture. * There were 3 classes of weapons during this period. Long weapons, short weapons and ranged weapons.
* Long weapons included the halberd, spear, tomahawk, and dagger.
* short weapons included the sword and the machete.
* ranged weapons included the bow and crossbow
* most weapons were made of iron. however, arrown shafts could be made of ouf wood. hilts were made of various materials, such as wood bound with cloth, and metal.
* armour was made of stone, or iron. WEAPONRY Thank you for watching our presentation, we hope you enjoy our fun quick memory game! ART: TERRA COTTA WARRIORS * first discovered in 1974(accidentally)
* 3 pits have been excavated. over 8000 warriors, chariots and horses have been found, as well as various weapons.
* The mausoleum they are part of took 11 years to build. The emperor started building in when he took the throne.
* The warriors are the best examples of life for the qin dynasty, because they were so well preserved. The very detailed warriors show examples of social classes, clothing, and weapons.
* The musuem preserving the terracotta warriors spands 16,400 square feet.
* This discovery is concidered the most important one of the 20th century. Presented by: Kandice Anderson & Amy Toste