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Writing Your Commandant's Paper
Transcript of Writing Your Commandant's Paper
Review of Related Literature
Restatement of Research Problems
Presentation of Data
Implications of the Study
P2LT MARIA LOURDES RANARIO-OCBENA PROF
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation
Definition of Terms
1. Describe the current situation (broad overview - international or local
2. If description is int'l, apply to local setting. If local, apply to organization.
3. Establish the similar issue in the unit.
Should I describe my unit in detail?
Should I include the unit mission and vision?
How can I best establish the problem in my unit?
1. Problems should be in question form.
2. Problems should be open ended. (What, How)
3. Problems should have concrete measures or determinants.
4. Problems should not include perception.
5. Problems should not include question for recommendation.
When does a problem statement need a determinant?
How do I state a statistical problem?
How do I know that my problem statements are valid?
Write down three problem statements relating to your preferred/chosen/approved topic.
This will be submitted after 10 minutes and will be returned with comments after noon mess.
Write down the immediate objectives.
Immediate objectives are the findings upon which your recommendations will be based on.
Write down specific objectives.
Specific objectives simply answer your problem statements. (To determine, to establish, etc.)
Intermediate theory that attempt to connect to
all aspects of inquiry
Act like a map that will establish coherence to empirical inquiry
(Questions raised in the statement of the problem.)
Shows how the variables or concepts are related to each other
Conceptual Frameworks should...
- stem out of the Review of Related Literature
- lead to the methodology
- connect all aspects of inquiry
- explainskey terms
- Outlines a process of assessing evidence that asks questions related to important aspects of interpreting research findings
- Defines a set of different activities and categories of outputs
- Defines what kind of research activities can be used to produce specific outputs
Answers the question:
Who will benefit from the results of this study?
How will they benefit from this?
*May be written from general to specific or
What will be included in the study?
Who will be included in the study?
Where will the study be conducted?
What is the time or period covered by the study?
What will NOT be included in the study?
(other identified and existing variables that
will not be tackled - in detail or at all - in the research.)
These are justified as to their non-inclusion.
Define terms used in the title
Define terms OPERATIONALLY (how it is used in the study, especially if it has different meanings for different instances)
Define variables mentioned in your problem statement.
Acronyms may form part of, or may be in a separate section.
May be narrative or thematic
Use more existing studies
- Establish the difference and similarity of the previous study
- How did the previous study help you in your research?
Policies may be used:
- Provide a brief background of the policy
(What is it all about)
- Cite how useful it is to the existing study
- If looking into revision of policy, cite a lack of, or confusing provision
- Is not a summary of the studies
- Identifies the research gaps (what are the areas that
were not covered by previous researches that yours will tackle)
- Should highlight the importance of conducting your study
- Summative of common points among different authors; Presents both sides, if there are opposing ideas.
Locale of the Study
Data Collection and Management
Quantitative - Experimental designs, Non-experimental designs, such as surveys studies
Qualitative - Narrative research, Phenomenology, Ethnographies,
Grounded theory, Case Study
Mixed Methods - Sequential, Concurrent, Transformative
Quantitative Studies require:
Advanced statistical computation and analysis
(Correlation, Significant Difference)
Existing instruments are better, especially when
*Use a 4-point Likert scale (Strongly Agree - Strongly Disagree)
*Use a 5-point Liker scale (Never - Always)
*Write neutral statements. Avoid he use of absolute words such as "all", "everyone"
*Be specific with the terms needing determinants
*Adjust depending on your respondents
*Pilot test if developing own survey
Form 5 groups and choose from any of these general topics: Intelligence, Education and Training, Organization, Supply, Plans and Programs.
Develop a 5-item survey. Present after 15 minutes
Include the venues where you:
Gathered data (if resources are only available in that place)
Conducted surveys (mass conduct)
Conducted Focus Group Discussion
A. Non-probability Sampling
- How you will collect your data (research, survey, interview, FGD) - in chronological order.
- How you will manage/interpret your data
- Narrative of how to go about your research
Statistical Treatment of Data
Hypothesis (null -Ho- and alternative - Ha-)
z or t scores for Significant Difference
Pearson's Rho - linear relationship (direct or inverse)
*degrees of confidence, confidence level is usually set at .1
*alpha levels are found in pre-set tables
Qualitative Data Analysis
- Content analysis
(Watch out for non-verbal cues)
(What is related to your study)
- Document analysis