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Conjunctions and Transition words

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Sariel Wang

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Conjunctions and Transition words

Conjunctions and
Transition words

What is a conjunction
Conjunctions are words which connect words, phrases or clauses.
There are three kinds of conjunctions:
*Coordinating conjunctions
*Correlative conjunctions
*Subordinating conjunctions
What are Conjunctions
Conjunctions are some words used to connect words, phrases, and clauses.

There are three different types of conjunctions, which are:
Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."
We use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.
Co-ordinating conjunction
What are conjunctions?
Transition words
This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately 200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and teachers alike) to find the right expression. English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. in the line of argument.
The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.
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Present by

Sariel .W
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Why do you use conjunctions
uses
- highly functional and very important for constructing sentences.
- used to link different parts of the sentence
- conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses together.
- connect thoughts, ideas, actions, nouns, clauses, etc.
- connects two sentences, preventing the choppiness which would arise if we used too many short sentences.
- can also make lists
Transition words
differences
between

conjunction

&

transitional words

When and where is a conjunction used?
Differences-----CONJUNCTION (1)
Like transitions, they link two or more independent clauses.
The punctuation before a conjunction is always a comma except with very simple, brief ideas, in which case a comma is unnecessary.
Ex. And, but, yet, so, nor, and or
Differences-----CONJUNCTION (2)
We
can
say:

“She hadn't given us any lunch,
so
we stopped at the first place we found”

You can't put the "
so
” in any other location.

We
can't
say:

“She hadn't given us any lunch, we
so
stopped at the first place we found.”
* Conjunctions have only one possible position *
--exactly between the two independent clauses.
Differences-----Transitions (1)
The second of the two independent clauses is always preceded by either a period (full stop) or, more commonly, by a semicolon [;]

Although commas are sometimes used before the second clause in informal writing, they are not considered correct, standard written style.
Differences-----Transitions (2)
For example Using the word

-----
Therefore

They can occur in four places:
* Transitions may occupy more than one position*
---in the second independent clause
- an integral part of the English language.
- improve almost any type of writing.
- help create better sentences.
- allows for more natural flow and rhythm in your writing.
Conjunctions may breathe creative life into your writing by allowing you to combine ideas and compare clauses without having to break up your sentences into choppy fragments. They can, however, cause problems if not used properly.
For example:
“I went to the store. They didn’t have apples. They also didn’t have hot sauce.”
While technically not incorrect, these sentences would sound much better as one sentence joined together by conjunctions. “I went to the store, but they had neither apples nor hot sauce.”
1) at the beginning of the

second independent clause:
“She hadn't given us any lunch;

therefore
we stopped at the first

place we found.”
2) between the subject and the

main verb of the second clause:
“She hadn't given us any lunch;

we
therefore
stopped at the

first place we found. ”
3) after the subject and main

verb of the second clause:
“She hadn't given us any lunch;

we stopped,
therefore
, at the first

place we found

(commas obligatory)”
4) at the end of the

second clause:
“She hadn't given us any lunch;

we stopped at the first place we

found,
therefore

How to use conjunction

Coordinating conjunctions
include "for," "and," "but," "so," "or," "nor" and "yet."
To decide if you need to use a coordinating conjunction, determine the purpose of the sentence.

Use
subordinating

conjunctions
to introduce dependent clauses. Subordinating conjunctions, like coordinating conjunctions, are connectors. But subordinating conjunctions join two thoughts. Some subordinating conjunctions include "before," "after," "though," "although," "however" and "when."
7.For example, consider, "Although he said he did not steal the cookies, there were cookie crumbs around his mouth." Here "Although he said he did not steal the cookies" is the dependent clause.
How to use conjunctions (5)
We use correlative conjunctions to link equivalent items in pairs. Such conjunctions might include phrases such as "both ... and," "either ... or," "neither ... nor" or "whether ... or."
8.For example, you might
write, "Johnny couldn't
make up his mind
whether to go to the park
or to go to the zoo."

There are only 7 coordinating conjunctions.They are FANBOYS!

Notes: "but" and "for"
can also be used as prepositions.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating
Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs
-- we use them to link sentence elements.
The most common correlative conjunctions are:
both ... and
either ... or
neither ... nor
not only...but also
so...as
whether...or
Transition Words
Transitions are words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections of a text or speech. Transitions provide greater cohesion by making it more explicit or signaling how ideas relate to one another. Transitions are "bridges" that carry a reader from section to section.
e.g. furthermore, in addition , besides
The uses of conjunctions (1)
- highly functional and very important for constructing sentences.
- used to link different parts of the sentence
- conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses together.
The uses of conjunctions (2)
- connect thoughts, ideas, actions, nouns, clauses, etc.
- connects two sentences, preventing the choppiness which would arise if we used too many short sentences.
- can also make lists
The uses of conjunctions (3)
- an integral part of the English language.
- improve almost any type of writing.
- help create better sentences.
- allows for more natural flow and rhythm in your writing.
The uses of conjunctions (4)
The improper use of conjunctions often results in writing that sounds choppy and disjointed.
Conjunctions may breathe creative life into your writing by allowing you to combine ideas and compare clauses without having to break up your sentences into choppy fragments. They can, however, cause problems if not used properly.
The uses of conjunctions (5)
How to use conjunctions (1)
1.use "and" if you want to join two similar ideas. For example, you might write, "They went to the library and then to the park."
2.Use "but" if you want to join two contrasting ideas. For example, you might write, "He is a sloppy dresser, but she is a neat dresser."
3.Use "so" if you want a coordinating conjunction to show that the second idea is the result of the first one. For example, consider "He was late for school, so he went to get a tardy note from the office."
How to use conjuctions (2)
4.Select "or" for a coordinating conjunction if you want to join two alternative ideas. For example, you might write, "I want to wear my green dress or my black dress."
5.If you are using a coordinating conjunction to separate two main clauses, you must use a comma before the coordinating conjunction.
For example, you would write, "Ruby got out of bed, and she went downstairs to talk to her mother." The comma here goes before the conjunction "and".
How to use conjunctions (3)
6.If you have only one main clause and a subordinate clause, do not use a comma before the conjunction. Recall that a subordinate clause is not a complete sentence. For example, you would write, "Ruby got out of bed and went downstairs to talk to her mother." The subordinate clause is "went downstairs to talk to her mother."
How to use conjunctions (4)
References
http://tx.english-ch.com/teacher/jane/level-b/coordinating-conjunction-2/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv161.shtml
http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/conjunct.html
http://teacherlingo.com/resources/items/subordinating-conjunctions-grammar-poster-playing-cards.aspx
https://www.msu.edu/~jdowell/135/transw.html


Oct 29, 2013
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