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History of Federalism Timeline
Transcript of History of Federalism Timeline
Chantelle Duesbury, A2 - Government under the Articles of Confederation - (1777) I. Civil War: Dual Federalism (1789) - 10 Amendment to the Constitution (1791) The Articles gave loose confederation to the states that gave limited powers to the central government. The greatest weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the inability to regulate trade or levy taxes. (Powers of the States and the People)
The 10th Amendment states that the powers that are not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it are reserved to the states or to the people. -Commerce Clause of the Constitution (1800-1930s) -McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) -Barron v. Baltimore (1822) II. Civil War Amendments and Reconstruction (1860's) - 13th Amendment (1865) (Abolition to Slavery) States that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. - 14th Amendment (1868) -Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Grants citizenship to everyone born in the US and subject to its jurisdiction and protects civil and political rights. -Brown v. Board of Education (1954) -Reed v. Reed (1971) Equal Protection Clause - requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. This clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of education, the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in United States education. - 15th Amendment (1870) III. Post Reconstruction (1876 -1900's) -Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) -Jim Crow Laws (1876-1965) IV. New Deal and WW11 (1933-1936) V. Civil Rights Era (1950's 1970's) -1950's building of a national highway VI. Devolution Era (New Federalism) (1980-Present) -Block Grant - is a large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government with only general provisions as to the way it is to be spent. -Formula/Categorical grants) - are grants, issued by the United States Congress, which may be spent only for narrowly-defined purposes. -Mandates - An official order or commission to do something: "a federal mandate". -Cross over sanctions - Cross-Over sanctions are federal orders in which the national government pulls or threatens to pull funding from one state-relate expense because of an unrelated offense. -Cross cutting requirements - Cross cutting requirements are those that are required by any entity that receives federal monies - be they states, organizations, municipalities. One of the most common requirements is non-discrimination based on gender, race, religion, ethnicity, etc. There are no exceptions. These regulations cut across all programs touched by the federal government. -South Dakota v. Dole - was a case in which the United States Supreme Court considered the limitations the Constitution places on the authority of the United States Congress when it uses its authority to influence the individual states in areas of authority normally reserved to the states. VII. Today The Commerce Clause is an enumerated power in the U.S Constitution. The clause states that the United States shall have the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and Indian tribes. Was a landmark decision by the Supreme court. The state of Maryland attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes not chartered in Maryland. United States Supreme Court case in which the Court established a precedent on whether the United States Bill of Rights could be applied to state governments. The Supreme Court ruled that the Bill of Rights restricts only the powers of the federal government and not those of the state governments. Was an Equal Protection case in the United States in which the Supreme Court ruled that the administrators of estates cannot be named in a way that discriminates between sexes. Was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves (or their descendants, whether or not they were slaves) were not protected by the Constitution and were not U.S. citizens. The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States mandating racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy for African Americans and Whites. Examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, places, transportation, restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated. Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark decision by the US Supreme Court that confirmed the principle of "Separate but Equal" and minority segregation. On June 7, 1892, 30-year-old Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy could easily pass for white but under Louisiana law, he was considered black despite his light complexion and therefore required to sit in the "Colored" car. The New Deal was a series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Great Depression (1930's) The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). World War II (1939-1945) Was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. 9/11 (2001) Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial airliners and crashed two of them into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon and one into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania of the United States on September 11, killing nearly 3,000 people. The United States subsequently declared a War on Terrorism. Afghanistan Invasion (2001) The U.S. and NATO invaded Afghanistan on October 7, 2001 and overthrew the Al-Qaeda-supportive Taliban government. Troops remained to install a democratic government, fight a slowly escalating insurgency, and to hunt for Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden who was killed by American troops nearly 10 years later, on May 2, 2011. First African-American President of the United States (2009) Barack Hussein Obama became the first African-American president of the United States. Osama Bin Laden Killed (2011) The Leader of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, who was responsible for the development of the plans for the September 11 attacks, is killed in a raid on his compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan by Seal Team 6 of U.S. military Special Forces on May 2, 2011. Americans had made a firm commitment to private cars over public mass transportation such as buses and trains, even though it meant higher personal expense, traffic jams, and occasional frustrations. The dominance of the transportation field by the automobile and trucking industries was assured when Congress passed the National Highway Act in 1958. -Montgomery Bus Boycott A political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person. Jim Crow Laws/Plessy v. Ferguson Most Influential Events I chose the Jim Crow and Plessy v. Ferguson because there has been a major change in the way people interact with each other today then how it was then. Today, whites and African Americans get along, use the same facilities, go to the same public places and take the same public transportation. This has changed because of the federal law in the U.S Constitution, Article 14: Prohibition on Discrimination. The Great Depression I chose the Great Depression because it was a time of severe poverty and economic depression. The power, money, supplies, etc. were going to the U.S. Army so they could fight for our country in World War II. First African-American President of the U.S. With Barack Obama in office, we have found Osama Bin Laden after 10 years, and he was killed. The fact that Barack Obama is the first black President of United States is very influential and powerful to the African-American peoples of the United States and others. Dred Scott v. Sandford. I chose this because I thought it was interesting how Africans who were bought to the Americas as slaves werent protected under the U.S. Constitution at the time. It's influential because now EVERYONE is protected in the U.S. Constitution. The 13th Amendment in the United States Constitution abolished slavery, 9/11 I chose this because after 9/11, the Islamic culture became our enemies. It left the whole of America of later terrorist attacks. Around 3,000 people died on the day of 9/11; people walking around lower Manhattan (the area of the attack), people working in the World Trade Centre, Firefighters and Police. The World Trade Center or now known as Ground Zero is now a memorial called "Reflecting Absence" which honors the victims of the September 11 attacks and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.