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Civil Rights Movement 1960s
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement 1960s
1955- Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat;
Martin Luther King
emerged as a leader, organizing bus boycotts; 65% of bus income lost
1960- Sit in Campaigns
After refused to be served, black students went back to the lunch counter at Wools worth's in North Carolina and refused to move until they were served
Returned each day, drawing alot of media attention
1963 March on Washington
Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech; 250,000 people attended
Largest gathering in Washington D.C. at the time
A social movement in the United States during the 1960s
Main goal was "to end racial segragation and discrimination against black Americans and enforce constitional voting rights to them"
1957- Desegregation at Little Rock High School
After blacks unable to enter the school, President Eisenhower ordered 1,000 paratroops and 10,000 National Guardsmen to Little Rock, Arkansas; school became desegregated
1961- Freedom Riders
Group of men worked to end the segregation on bus terminals
Rode buses sitting wherever they wanted, encountered violence but didn't give up
1962 University of Mississippi Riot
hired Federal Marshals to escort James Meredith into school (1st black student)
Riot broke out, killing 2 people
1963 Birmingham, Alabama
Peaceful protest, 100s of people fined and jailed, police broke it up with hoses and dogs
1964 Civil Rights Act
President Johnston pushed for these new laws after JFK's assassination
Outlawed segregation in public places, in schools and in employment
clashes between white authority and black civilians
more than 100 race riots erupted in major American cities (Watts, Detriot)
1968 Martin Luther King Jr's death
shot by James Earl Ray
turning point, caused rage and sparked riots
US Supreme Court Cases
Martin Luther King Jr.
US Civil Rights Leader who promoted nonviolence to reach the goal of racial equality
US Civil Rights Activist who preached Elijah Muhammad's views (whites were the cause of black conditions) and promoted equality through self sufficiency
A. Philip Randolph
American Civil Rights leader who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (1st black labor union)
Key Players Cont.
1st African American in the Supreme Court; involved in Brown v. Board of Education
President Lyndon Johnson
strong supporter of equal rights; managed to get 1st major civil rights legislature through Congress (African Americans right to vote)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Ruled that separating Whites and Blacks in schools was unconstitutional
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson case
Morgan v. Virginia (1946)
Struck down Virginia's law requiring racial segregation in interstate pubic transportation
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
Successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation
Influential in Brown v. Board of Education case
Brought greater equality for African Americans
Gave African American citizenship rights, such as voting (14th Amendment)
Achieved judicial and legislative victories against discrimination in pubic accommodations and voting