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Transcript of Greek Philosophy
And the Peloponnesian Wars
Philosophers And Schools:
Philosophers and Schools:
Shifted from natural phenomena to questions about human life
left no writings, but used dialogue
He was said to be the wisest because of his self-awareness of his ignorance of truth
He was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle
wrote about metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, psychology, politics, and aesthetics
his work influences much of Western thought
Was a student of Plato and became the teacher of Alexander the Great
Is credited for the being the father of modern logic and deductive reasoning
His syllogisms are at the base of deductive reasoning
Syllogism- Blueprints or set up for a formal argument involving a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion
helping to lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism
physics based on an atomistic materialism with a rational hedonistic ethics that emphasizes moderation of desires and cultivation of friendships
Hellenistic philosophers that identified pleasure as the greatest good
refuse to take strong positions on political, moral, and social issues
“skeptic” derives from a Greek noun, skepsis, which means examination, inquiry, consideration
Taught that true happiness is from the use of reason
Believed that the world was imbued with a divine law
It acknowledged the role of the individual, and thus played a role in democracy
Caused by tensions resulting from the Delian League
Fought between the Athenians and the Spartans
For a long time, there was no clear victor
The Peloponnesian Wars were between two city states that were at the head of their alliances in 431-404 B.C.E. One being Athens and with their alliances they covered most of the coastal states around the Aegean Sea. While, Sparta and their alliance controlled most of the independent states, central Greece, and Peloponnese Peninsula. The Peloponnesian Wars started when the Athenians broke the Thirty Years Treaty, using taxes for only their city, thus forcing Sparta to officially start the war, by attacking one of Athens alliances (Plataea). In the beginning of the war Sparta took Attica, and spared the city but took the advantage of the naval superiority, since Sparta had a weaker navy. Athenians then conquered Mytilene, a major city. Following that were a series of wars with fighting back and forth, controlling different cities. Then there was a 6 year peace between the two empires, from the treaty called Peace of Nicias. This treaty was broken when the Athenians massacred the city of Sicliy. Then, for another eleven years the war went on. Athens went into governmental chaos after the democracy was turned over by the oligarchical party. Finally, the war ended after the Athenian navy was destroyed by the Spartan fleet under Lysander.
A Brief Synopsis:
The Athenians were forced to an unconditional surrender